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c) coordinated action among different actors, across all relevant sectors at international, regional, national and community levels, needs to be supported through cross-cutting and coherent policies, programmes and initiatives, including social protection, to address the multiple burdens of malnutrition and to promote sustainable food systems;

d) food should not be used as an instrument for political or economic pressure;

e) excessive volatility of prices of food and agricultural commodities can negatively impact food security and nutrition, and needs to be better monitored and addressed for the challenges it poses;

f) improvements in diet and nutrition require relevant legislative frameworks for food safety and quality, including for the proper use of agrochemicals, by promoting participation in 116 Ending Malnutrition the activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission for the development of international standards for food safety and quality, as well as for improving information for consumers, while avoiding inappropriate marketing and publicity of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children, as recommended by resolution WHA63.14;

g) nutrition data and indicators, as well as the capacity of, and support to all countries, especially developing countries, for data collection and analysis, need to be improved in order to contribute to more effective nutrition surveillance, policy making and accountability;

h) empowerment of consumers is necessary through improved and evidence-based health and nutrition information and education to make informed choices regarding consumption of food products for healthy dietary practices;

i) national health systems should integrate nutrition while providing access for all to integrated health services through a continuum of care approach, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and contribute to reducing inequalities through addressing specific nutritionrelated needs and vulnerabilities of different population groups;

j) nutrition and other related policies should pay special attention to women and empower women and girls, thereby contributing to women’s full and equal access to social protection and resources, including, inter alia, income, land, water, finance, education, training, science and technology, and health services, thus promoting food security and health.

14. We recognize that:

a) international cooperation and Official Development Assistance for nutrition should support and complement national nutrition strategies, policies and programmes, and surveillance initiatives, as appropriate;

b) the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security is fostered through sustainable, equitable, accessible in all cases, and resilient and diverse food systems;

c) collective action is instrumental to improve nutrition, requiring collaboration between governments, the private sector, civil society and communities;

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d) non-discriminatory and secure access and utilization of resources in accordance with international law are important for food security and nutrition;

e) food and agriculture systems, including crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture, need to be addressed comprehensively through coordinated public policies, taking into account the resources, investment, environment, people, institutions and processes with which food is produced, processed, stored, distributed, prepared and consumed;

f) family farmers and small holders, notably women farmers, play an important role in reducing malnutrition and should be supported by integrated and multisectoral public policies, as appropriate, that raise their productive capacity and incomes and strengthen their resilience;

g) wars, occupations, terrorism, civil disturbances and natural disasters, disease outbreaks and epidemics, as well as human rights violations and inappropriate socio-economic policies, have resulted in tens of millions of refugees, displaced persons, war affected non-combatant civilian populations and migrants, who are among the most nutritionally vulnerable groups. Resources for rehabilitating and caring for these groups are often extremely inadequate and nutritional deficiencies are common. All responsible parties should cooperate to ensure the safe and timely passage and distribution of food and medical supplies to those in need, which conforms with the beliefs, culture, traditions, dietary habits and preferences of individuals, in accordance with national legislation and international law and obligations and the Charter of the United Nations;

h) responsible investment in agriculture¹, including small holders and family farming and in food systems, is essential for overcoming malnutrition;

i) governments should protect consumers, especially children, from inappropriate marketing and publicity of food;

j) nutrition improvement requires healthy, balanced, diversified diets, including traditional diets where appropriate, meeting nutrient requirements of all age groups, and all groups with special nutrition needs, while avoiding the excessive intake of saturated fat, sugars and salt/sodium, and virtually eliminating trans-fat, among others;

¹ The term agriculture includes crops, livestock, forestry and fisheries.

118 Ending Malnutrition

k) food systems should provide year-round access to foods that cover people’s nutrient needs and promote healthy dietary practices;

l) food systems need to contribute to preventing and addressing infectious diseases, including zoonotic diseases, and tackling antimicrobial resistance;

m) food systems, including all components of production, processing and distribution should be sustainable, resilient and efficient in providing more diverse foods in an equitable manner, with due attention to assessing environmental and health impacts;

n) food losses and waste throughout the food chain should be reduced in order to contribute to food security, nutrition, and sustainable development;

o) the United Nations system, including the Committee on World Food Security, and international and regional financial institutions should work more effectively together in order to support national and regional efforts, as appropriate, and enhance international cooperation and development assistance to accelerate progress in addressing malnutrition;

p) EXPO MILANO 2015, dedicated to “feeding the planet, energy for life”, among other relevant events and fora, will provide an opportunity to stress the importance of food security and nutrition, raise public awareness, foster debate, and give visibility to the ICN2 outcomes.

Commitment to action 15. We commit to:

a) eradicate hunger and prevent all forms of malnutrition worldwide, particularly undernourishment, stunting, wasting, underweight and overweight in children under five years of age; and anaemia in women and children among other micronutrient deficiencies; as well as reverse the rising trends in overweight and obesity and reduce the burden of diet-related noncommunicable diseases in all age groups;

b) increase investments for effective interventions and actions to improve people’s diets and nutrition, including in emergency situations;

c) enhance sustainable food systems by developing coherent public policies from production to consumption and across relevant sectors to provide year-round access to food that meets people’s nutrition needs and promote safe and diversified healthy diets;

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d) raise the profile of nutrition within relevant national strategies, policies, actions plans and programmes, and align national resources accordingly;

e) improve nutrition by strengthening human and institutional capacities to address all forms of malnutrition through, inter alia, relevant scientific and socio-economic research and development, innovation and transfer of appropriate technologies on mutually agreed terms and conditions;

f) strengthen and facilitate contributions and action by all stakeholders to improve nutrition and promote collaboration within and across countries, including North–South cooperation, as well as South–South and triangular cooperation;

g) develop policies, programmes and initiatives for ensuring healthy diets throughout the life course, starting from the early stages of life to adulthood, including of people with special nutritional needs, before and during pregnancy, in particular during the first 1,000 days, promoting, protecting and supporting exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months and continued breastfeeding until two years of age and beyond with appropriate complementary feeding, healthy eating by families, and at school during childhood, as well as other specialized feeding;

h) empower people and create an enabling environment for making informed choices about food products for healthy dietary practices and appropriate infant and young child feeding practices through improved health and nutrition information and education;

i) implement the commitments of this Declaration through the Framework for Action which will also contribute to ensuring accountability and monitoring progress in global nutrition targets;

j) give due consideration to integrating the vision and commitments of this Declaration into the post-2015 development agenda process including a possible related global goal.

16. We call on FAO and WHO, in collaboration with other United Nations agencies, funds and programmes, as well as other international organizations, to support national governments, upon request, in developing, strengthening and implementing their policies, programmes and plans to address the multiple challenges of malnutrition.

17. We recommend to the United Nations General Assembly to endorse the Rome Declaration on Nutrition, as well as the Framework for Action which provides a set of voluntary policy options and strategies 120 Ending Malnutrition for use by governments, as appropriate, and to consider declaring a Decade of Action on Nutrition from 2016 to 2025 within existing structures and available resources.

Appendix B ICN2: Framework for Action

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1. There has been a significant improvement in reducing hunger and malnutrition of the world’s population since the 1992 International Conference on Nutrition (ICN). Yet, progress in reducing hunger and undernutrition has been uneven and unacceptably slow. The fundamental challenge today is to sustainably improve nutrition through implementation of coherent policies and better coordinated actions across all relevant sectors.

Purpose and targets

2. The nature of this Framework for Action is voluntary. Its purpose is to guide the implementation of the commitments of the Rome Declaration on Nutrition adopted by the Second International Conference on Nutrition held in Rome, Italy, on 19–21 November

2014. Building on existing commitments, goals and targets, this Framework for Action provides a set of policy options and strategies which governments¹, acting in cooperation with other stakeholders, may incorporate, as appropriate, into their national nutrition, health, agriculture², development and investment plans, and consider in

–  –  –

negotiating international agreements to achieve better nutrition for all.

3. As governments have primary responsibility for taking action at country level, in dialogue with a wide range of stakeholders, including affected communities, the recommendations are principally addressed to government leaders. They will consider the appropriateness of the recommended policies and actions in relation to national needs and conditions, as well as regional and national priorities, including in legal frameworks. For the purpose of accountability, this Framework for Action adopts existing global targets for improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition³ and for noncommunicable disease risk factor reduction⁴ to be achieved by 2025.

Recommended set of policy and programme options

4. The following set of policy and programme options are recommended to create an enabling environment and to improve nutrition in all sectors.

Recommended actions to create an enabling environment for effective action

• Recommendation 1: Enhance political commitment and social participation for improving nutrition at the country level through political dialogue and advocacy.

• Recommendation 2: Develop – or revise, as appropriate – and cost National Nutrition Plans, align policies that impact nutrition across different ministries and agencies, and strengthen legal frameworks and strategic capacities for nutrition.

• Recommendation 3: Strengthen and establish, as appropriate, national cross-government, inter- sector, multi-stakeholder mechanisms for food security and nutrition to oversee implementation of policies, strategies, programmes and other investments in nutrition. Such platforms may be needed at various levels, with robust safeguards against abuse and conflicts of interest.

³ Namely: (1) 40% reduction of the global number of children under five who are stunted; (2) 50% reduction of anaemia in women of reproductive age; (3) 30% reduction of low birth weight; (4) no increase in childhood overweight; (5) increase exclusive breastfeeding rates in the first six months up to at least 50%; and (6) reduce and maintain childhood wasting to less than 5%.

⁴ Namely: (1) to reduce salt intake by 30%; and (2) to halt the increase in obesity prevalence in adolescents and adults.

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• Recommendation 4: Increase responsible and sustainable investment in nutrition, especially at country level with domestic finance; generate additional resources through innovative financing tools; engage development partners to increase Official Development Assistance in nutrition and foster private investments as appropriate.

• Recommendation 5: Improve the availability, quality, quantity, coverage and management of multisectoral information systems related to food and nutrition for improved policy development and accountability.

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