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• Recommendation 6: Promote inter-country collaboration, such as North–South, South–South and triangular cooperation, and information exchange on nutrition, food, technology, research, policies and programmes.
• Recommendation 7: Strengthen nutrition governance and coordinate policies, strategies and programmes of United Nations system agencies, programmes and funds within their respective mandates.
Recommended actions for sustainable food systems promoting healthy diets
• Recommendation 8: Review national policies and investments and integrate nutrition objectives into food and agriculture policy, programme design and implementation, to enhance nutrition sensitive agriculture, ensure food security and enable healthy diets.
• Recommendation 9: Strengthen local food production and processing, especially by smallholder⁵ and family farmers, giving special attention to women’s empowerment, while recognizing that efficient and effective trade is key to achieving nutrition objectives.
• Recommendation 10: Promote the diversification of crops including underutilized traditional crops, more production of fruits and vegetables, and appropriate production of animal-source products as needed, applying sustainable food production and natural resource management practices.
• Recommendation 11: Improve storage, preservation, transport and distribution technologies and infrastructure to reduce seasonal food insecurity, food and nutrient loss and waste.
⁵ Smallholder farmers include agriculture and food workers, artisanal fisherfolk, pastoralists, indigenous peoples and the landless (Committee on World Food Security, Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition, 2013).
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• Recommendation 12: Establish and strengthen institutions, policies, programmes and services to enhance the resilience of the food supply in crisis-prone areas, including areas affected by climate change.
• Recommendation 13: Develop, adopt and adapt, where appropriate, international guidelines on healthy diets.
• Recommendation 14: Encourage gradual reduction of saturated fat, sugars and salt/sodium and trans-fat from foods and beverages to prevent excessive intake by consumers and improve nutrient content of foods, as needed.
• Recommendation 15: Explore regulatory and voluntary instruments – such as marketing, publicity and labelling policies, economic incentives or disincentives in accordance with Codex Alimentarius and World Trade Organization rules – to promote healthy diets.
• Recommendation 16: Establish food or nutrient-based standards to make healthy diets and safe drinking water accessible in public facilities such as hospitals, childcare facilities, workplaces, universities, schools, food and catering services, government offices and prisons, and encourage the establishment of facilities for breastfeeding.
Recommended actions in international trade and investment
• Recommendation 17: Encourage governments, United Nations agencies, programmes and funds, the World Trade Organization and other international organizations to identify opportunities to achieve global food and nutrition targets, through trade and investment policies.
• Recommendation 18: Improve the availability and access of the food supply through appropriate trade agreements and policies and endeavour to ensure that such agreements and policies do not have a negative impact on the right to adequate food in other countries⁶.
Recommended actions for nutrition education and information
• Recommendation 19: Implement nutrition education and information interventions based on national dietary guidelines and coherent policies related to food and diets, through improved school curricula, nutrition education in the health, agriculture and social protection services, community interventions and point-of-sale information, including labelling.
⁶ United Nations General Assembly resolution A/RES/68/177, paragraph 25.
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• Recommendation 20: Build nutrition skills and capacity to undertake nutrition education activities, particularly for front line workers, social workers, agricultural extension personnel, teachers and health professionals.
• Recommendation 21: Conduct appropriate social marketing campaigns and lifestyle change communication programmes to promote physical activity, dietary diversification, consumption of micronutrient-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables, including traditional local foods and taking into consideration cultural aspects, better child and maternal nutrition, appropriate care practices and adequate breastfeeding and complementary feeding, targeted and adapted for different audiences and stakeholders in the food system.
Recommended actions on social protection
• Recommendation 22: Incorporate nutrition objectives into social protection programmes and into humanitarian assistance safety net programmes.
• Recommendation 23: Use cash and food transfers, including school feeding programmes and other forms of social protection for vulnerable populations to improve diets through better access to food which conforms with the beliefs, culture, traditions, dietary habits and preferences of individuals in accordance with national and international laws and obligations, and which is nutritionally adequate for healthy diets.
• Recommendation 24: Increase income for the most vulnerable populations by creating decent jobs for all, including through the promotion of self-employment.
Recommended actions for strong and resilient health systems
• Recommendation 25: Strengthen health systems and promote universal health coverage⁷, particularly through primary health care, to enable national health systems to address malnutrition in all its forms.
⁷ In accordance with preambular paragraph 9 of resolution WHA67.14, universal health coverage implies that all people have access without discrimination to nationally determined sets of the needed promotive, preventive, curative, palliative and rehabilitative essential health services and essential, safe, affordable, effective and quality medicines, while ensuring that the use of these services does not expose the users to financial hardship with a special emphasis on the poor, vulnerable and marginalized segments of the population.
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• Recommendation 26: Improve the integration of nutrition actions into health systems through appropriate strategies for strengthening human resources, leadership and governance, health system financing and service delivery, as well as the provision of essential medicines, information and monitoring.
• Recommendation 27: Promote universal access to all direct nutrition actions and relevant health actions impacting nutrition through health programmes.
• Recommendation 28: Implement the WHO Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding, the WHO Comprehensive Implementation Plan on Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition 2012–2025, and the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2013–2020 through commensurate financing and adequate policies.
Recommended actions to promote, protect and support breastfeeding
• Recommendation 29: Adapt and implement the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions.
• Recommendation 30: Implement policies and practices, including labour reforms, as appropriate, to promote protection of working mothers⁸.
• Recommendation 31: Implement policies, programmes and actions to ensure that health services promote, protect and support breastfeeding, including the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.
• Recommendation 32: Encourage and promote – through advocacy, education and capacity building – an enabling environment where men, particularly fathers, participate actively and share responsibilities with mothers in caring for their infants and young children, while empowering women and enhancing their health and nutritional status throughout the life course.
• Recommendation 33: Ensure that policies and practices in emergency situations and humanitarian crises promote, protect and support breastfeeding.
⁸ As specified in the International Labour Organization’s Maternity Protection Convention No. 183 and corresponding Recommendation 191.
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• Recommendation 34: Adopt policies and actions, and mobilize funding, to improve coverage of treatment for wasting, using the community-based management of acute malnutrition approach and improve the integrated management of childhood illnesses.
• Recommendation 35: Integrate disaster and emergency preparedness into relevant policies and programmes.
Recommended actions to address stunting
• Recommendation 36: Establish policies and strengthen interventions to improve maternal nutrition and health, beginning with adolescent girls and continuing through pregnancy and lactation.
• Recommendation 37: Establish health policies, programmes and strategies to promote optimal infant and young child feeding, particularly exclusive breastfeeding up to six months, followed by adequate complementary feeding (from six to 24 months).
Recommended actions to address childhood overweight and obesity
• Recommendation 38: Provide dietary counselling to women during pregnancy for healthy weight gain and adequate nutrition.
• Recommendation 39: Improve child nutritional status and growth, particularly by addressing maternal exposure to the availability and marketing of complementary foods, and by improving supplementary feeding programmes for infants and young children.
• Recommendation 40: Regulate the marketing of food and nonalcoholic beverages to children in accordance with WHO recommendations.
• Recommendation 41: Create a conducive environment that promotes physical activity to address sedentary lifestyle from the early stages of life.
Recommended actions to address anaemia in women of reproductive age
• Recommendation 42: Improve intake of micronutrients through consumption of nutrient-dense foods, especially foods rich in iron, where necessary, through fortification and supplementation strategies, and promote healthy and diversified diets.
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• Recommendation 43: Provide daily iron and folic acid and other micronutrient supplementation to pregnant women as part of antenatal care; and intermittent iron and folic acid supplementation to menstruating women where the prevalence of anaemia is 20% or higher, and deworming, where appropriate.
Recommended actions in the health services to improve nutrition
• Recommendation 44: Implement policies and programmes to ensure universal access to and use of insecticide-treated nets, and to provide preventive malaria treatment for pregnant women in areas with moderate to high malaria transmission.
• Recommendation 45: Provide periodic deworming for all school-age children in endemic areas.
• Recommendation 46: Implement policies and programmes to improve health service capacity to prevent and treat infectious diseases⁹.
• Recommendation 47: Provide zinc supplementation to reduce the duration and severity of diarrhoea, and to prevent subsequent episodes in children.
• Recommendation 48: Provide iron and, among others, vitamin A supplementation for pre-school children to reduce the risk of anaemia.
• Recommendation 49: Implement policies and strategies to ensure that women have comprehensive information and access to integral health care services that ensure adequate support for safe pregnancy and delivery.
Recommended actions on water, sanitation and hygiene
• Recommendation 50: Implement policies and programmes using participatory approaches to improve water management in agriculture and food production.¹⁰
• Recommendation 51: Invest in and commit to achieve universal access to safe drinking water, with the participation of civil society and the support of international partners, as appropriate.
⁹ Including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, immunization against measles and antibiotic treatment for girls with urinary infections.
¹⁰ Including by reducing water wastage in irrigation, strategies for multiple use of water (including wastewater), and better use of appropriate technology.
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• Recommendation 52: Implement policies and strategies using participatory approaches to ensure universal access to adequate sanitation¹¹ and to promote safe hygiene practices, including hand washing with soap.
Recommended actions on food safety and antimicrobial resistance
• Recommendation 53: Develop, establish, enforce and strengthen, as appropriate, food control systems, including reviewing and modernizing national food safety legislation and regulations to ensure that food producers and suppliers throughout the food chain operate responsibly.
• Recommendation 54: Actively take part in the work of the Codex Alimentarius Commission on nutrition and food safety, and implement, as appropriate, internationally adopted standards at the national level.
• Recommendation 55: Participate in and contribute to international networks to exchange food safety information, including for managing emergencies¹².
• Recommendation 56: Raise awareness among relevant stakeholders on the problems posed by antimicrobial resistance, and implement appropriate multisectoral measures to address antimicrobial resistance, including prudent use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine.
• Recommendation 57: Develop and implement national guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals according to internationally recognized standards adopted by competent international organizations to reduce non-therapeutic use of antimicrobials and to phase out the use of antimicrobials as growth promoters in the absence of risk analysis as described in Codex Code of Practice CAC/RCP61-2005.
Recommendations for accountability