«THE COLOMBIAN AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS SYSTEM, UNDER A NEW CONCEPTUALIZATION Sergio Enrique Acosta Moreno Leader of Agricultural Statistics Jaime ...»
Colombian agricultural statistics system, SEA. Dane
THE COLOMBIAN AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS SYSTEM, UNDER A NEW
Sergio Enrique Acosta Moreno
Leader of Agricultural Statistics
Jaime Pérez Gómez
Advisor of Agricultural Statistics and Environmental
Bogotá, Mayo de 2011
Agricultural statistics developed by the Colombian State in the last fifty years are presented in this article. During this fifty-year period the production of agricultural indicators has not been fairly distributed: indicators have been developed at national and regional scale rather than at a county scale. This is probably caused by the misunderstanding of the statistical research methodologies limitations and advantages, the lack of continuity in the statistical systems’ concepts which, due to diverse causes, has not been carried out; a slow leading process in National Statistical’s technical aspects and the absence of statistics in culture. Nowadays Colombia is an optimal place for an efficient complete high-quality Agricultural Statistical System to be build because of a new vision of information and statistical systems in agricultural indicators users and developers, the experience achieved by the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadísticas (DANE) in conceptualization and design through the implementation of over eighty-five long-term continuous statistical researches, and the application of communication technologies, data base innovations and geographic information through the use of spatial Página1 data, geostatistical analysis and satellite images to keep track of natural as well as manmade land cover.
The Colombian Agricultural Statistics System, Under a new Conceptualization Colombian agricultural statistics system, SEA. Dane Key Words: agricultural indicators, Colombian agriculture Statistical System, national agriculture census, show statistics, administrative registry and statistical culture.
INTRODUCTIONThe administrative management in various areas is closely linked to the territory on which it develops, since this is the common reference for all human activities. It comes to the different administrations is a need for comprehensive and updated knowledge. According to the 1991 National Constitution for the state administration and political representation, the country was divided for administrative departments, districts, municipalities and indigenous territories. It is in this geographical area to develop regional statistics in general and agriculture in particular.
Countries of the world has recognized the importance of agricultural statistics as a means to understand the structure and evolution of the sector, indispensable basis for the development, design, implement and evaluate plans, programs and projects that establish the necessary policies to promote agricultural development. In Colombia, as is characteristic of any developing country, agriculture is a source of essential development in the national economy, despite the declining share in national GDP (2000-2009 historical average of 8%). Furthermore, 24 percent of Colombia's population lives in rural areas and agriculture employs about 20 percent of national employment and represents over 60% of employment in rural areas.
Because of the importance of the agricultural sector and rural national economy, it is evident that a clear understanding thorough, by relevant statistical information, reliable and timely information, to plan and schedule, with some basis its development. These information needs vary if it is in the national or municipal level, the technical efforts, institutional and financial have been made mainly by the institutions at the national order.
(DANE and MADR), who have somehow tried to generate the municipal level, with relative success.
At one time, the generation of agricultural information has been addressed by different methodological choices, prioritizing the needs of national and departmental information, however it has always been a pending task information generation at the municipal level by several factors, among them is highlights financial factor.
efforts in statistical research, from municipal consensus (no objective statistical method) probability samples, (ENA- ENDA) and agricultural products census. However, The 3rd
National Agricultural Census, The census is a imperative need for the development of the Agricultural Statistics of Colombia and territorial statistical. This statistical operation is the keystone of the system. From it that is the statistics program is local, national, continued efficiency and integrity of agriculture. National Administrative Statistics Department -DANE- has been working on the strategic plan for agricultural statistics – PENDES-, where provided for complementarity and completeness of the agricultural statistical system and this in the context of National Statistical System –SEN- and inside of DANE regarding the statistical operations in the economic, social and environmental.
The structuring of Agricultural and Rural Statistical System -SEA- involves national and international experience and takes into account the experience information systems of MADR and the agricultural production unions, the recommendations of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations -FAO-, World Agricultural Census 2005 and the fundamental principles of official statistics of the United Nations.
In 1951, the National Office Control –CONTRALORIA- attempted to conduct the first national agricultural census, but due to technical and public policy that failed. In 1960 was made by DANE, the first National Agricultural Census and during the years 64 to 69 national surveys were conducted on different aspects of interest to the agriculture. In 1970
-71 was made, the second National Agricultural Census by DANE, but during the decade were not carried out national surveys on issues of importance, so the continuity was observed between 1964 - 1969 was lost.
In parallel, since 1971 the Ministry of Agriculture in order to meet its internal needs of organized information in statistics office, it from 1972 published annual estimates of harvested area, production, cattle inventory, area in pasture, harvest forecasts, among other indicators. The method used in collecting the data is “subjective”, using the criteria and ministry staff experience in their respective jurisdictions. This work often leads to meetings with a concurrence of local authorities, important farmers and other officials of the Ministry, through analysis, adopted figures (originally was municipality and now is department) for period certain.
The use of subjective procedures in the estimation of harvested areas and yields obtained, has limitations because of the impossibility of quantifying the annual statistical errors, so the figures do not allow a consistent analysis, however is the only continuous source of data at this level political and administrative, also efforts have been made to improve their statistical quality, by introducing conceptual aspects that govern the administrative records.
and plans for national economic development and territorial, in 1982 the National Council for Economic and Social –CONPES- approved the implementation of the 3rd National Agricultural Census - III CNA-, a fact that should have been done approximately in 1986.
However, the high costs that the transaction involved, the lack of financial resources, inability to obtain external financing, the possible delay in obtaining results and the fact that the DANE, an organization that was run was scheduled completion of the National Census of Population and Housing, made to seek alternatives, due to the above, led to the adoption of the sampling methodology Agricultural Areas.
This methodology has been successfully applied not only in United States, but in several Latin American countries, it should be tested in Colombia. Between 1983 and 1986 pilots testing were implemented in five departments, so: In November 1983, in Caldas, in February-March 1984 in Tolima, in September 1984 in Magdalena, in November 1985 in four municipalities in southern Cauca, and in February, March and April 1986 in the Valle del Cauca. Given the successful results obtained in the pilots testing and the fact that it was a scientific advantageous conditions of Colombia MARD to the end in 1988, made the First National Agricultural Survey –PENAGRO- which covered 23 departments and allowed the collection of information about the structure of agriculture; data were collected about socio-economic as well as data on areas planted, watered and harvested and the production obtained for transient crop in two periods taken as a reference, areas planted, watered and productive age and the production obtained for permanent crops, the number of cows milked and milk production. These surveys formed at the time what was known as the Agricultural Statistics System for Sampling –SEAMThus, this statistical operation allowed in the short term, get the information that otherwise could be achieved through the implementation of III CNA, and through this sample design was thought to establish a statistical system that would permit continuous regularly obtain information about all topics of interest concerning this important sector of the economy, with indicators at both national and departmental levels.
Since the holding of the First National Agricultural Survey –PENAGRO- in 1988 to 1995, there was no information of sector using scientific methods due to suppression of SEAM in 1990, so the user public and private organizations were forced to supply themselves with information for specific purposes. This has determined that there are several variable data for the same investigation, different levels of geographical breakdown or territorial for the same reference period. Given these circumstances, in June 1993, Ministry of Agriculture and livestock, now the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, -MADR- and National Administrative Statistics Department, DANE, signed an agreement of cooperation and technical coordination for the establishment of the National Agricultural Statistical System and Fisheries of Colombia.
During the period 1995 to 2005, DANE-MADR-, conducted ten National Agricultural Survey –ENA-, censuses were advanced in conjunction with agricultural production economic union, National Census of potato with Colombian Federation of Potato producers –FEDEPAPA-, National census of industrial poultry farming with National Federation of Poultry Farmers –FENAVI-, National Census of Pig Industry tech with Página4 Colombian Association of Pig Farmers –ASOPORCICULTORES- National Census of Rice with National Federation of Rice farmers, National Census of Vegetables and Fruit with
Horticultural Association of Colombia –ASOHOFRUCOL-, Departmental Livestock Census in Departament of Huila with Livestock Farmers Federation of Colombia – FEDEGAN-, National Survey of Forest Plantations, with National Association of Reforestiation -ACOFORE- in 1999, Census department of forest plantations with Autonomous Regional Corporations –Cars- in Departaments of Antioquia and Magdalena, among other researches.
In 2005, DANE carried out, National Census of Population and Housing, where not only collected data from population and housing but also economic and agricultural units, this has been the only agricultural research associated with the national census of population and housing since the last agricultural census in 1970. Likewise, this new concept applied to this statistical operation per decade, is a big event in national statistics, by integrating large population and housing research with economic and agricultural statistics, integration allowed to build a national statistical frame of the agricultural sector from the housing – Rural Home – (with some restrictions) and facilitate the design of statistical operation integrated a comprehensive understanding of the agricultural sector. From 2006 and until 2009, MARD continued to carry out the national agricultural surveys that DANE had been doing through the Corporation Colombia International (CCI), in 2010 an agreement was signed between MARD - DANE -CCI- for unit institutional efforts for the ENA 2010. For 2011 it is expected that this research back to DANE and restarted statistical research on the conceptualization of Agricultural Statistical System. –SEA-, conceptualization presented by DIRPEN in 2009.
Currently private sector has excellent systems of information by economics union. For Coffee Sector the Coffee Information System –SICA-, For Oil Palm Statistical Information System Oil Palm Sector –SISPA- in Cane Sugar –CENICAÑA- has an advanced information system for sugarcane which revolves around agriculture site specific –AEPS- This system consists of 10 tools related to area, production and yields crops by variety, fertilization, Hydrometeorology, climate, agro-ecological and economic. For panela-cane, FEDEPANELA has created a technology platform called Panela Information System –SIPA-. Through this platform, enter the information related to all beneficiaries (Entrepreneurs and Rural Groups) in a sequential and validated. The information entered refers to the characterization of panela units and panela-cane producers.
-SEA- is defined as an integrated system of agricultural statistics, released by government agencies or private actors performing their public tasks, fundamental to the process of defining public policies, the optimal resource allocation, monitoring and evaluation of government management, as well as being necessary to promote transparency and accountability of governments.
process and sub-process (meta-information system - Accelerated data), methodologies are made public, attending to the strategic needs of users(farmers, policy
makers, evaluators of policy compliance, researchers) gradually covers the demand, and takes into account the needs of modeling indicators, imbalances between supply and demand statistics strategic and eliminating every the shortcomings identified.