«THE COLOMBIAN AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS SYSTEM, UNDER A NEW CONCEPTUALIZATION Sergio Enrique Acosta Moreno Leader of Agricultural Statistics Jaime ...»
This proposal, considered that information plays a key role in strengthening decentralization strategies in various sectors of governance. The transfer of responsibilities to local authorities has been accompanied by strong pressures for development and institutional strengthening of local and regional authorities. One of the critical points which need to strengthen the capacity of these entities is the planning and monitoring of public policies. There are clear weaknesses and gaps that are in management disaggregated below national and regional levels. This leads to necessity of creating an information system that allows a better understanding of reality needs, local diagnostics and indicators. For this, the MARD proposes the construction of a rural land information system that provides information bases and methodological developments for use by local authorities, with the following
1. Create a system of territorial indicators seeks to channel the support of national entities responsible for generating information to local authorities, departmental and
regional. It proposes three components of this system of territorial information:
system of territorial indicators, survey systems regional and local, and rural consensus.
2. Territorial Indicators System begins of construction of indicators at the territorial level, which is a task that has been being conducted by various publics and privates entities.
3. The regional and local survey systems aims incentive to local authorities to undertake in deepth studies for their respective areas of jurisdiction, capitalizing population census and sectorial statistics frame. Throught acces of entities to sampling frames and technical support.
4. The third component of land information is conformed by Consensus Agricultural Assessment System being developed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development from the 70.
intercensus investigations, between them sampling areas, production and perfomance departamental and municipal, -MAPREDE and MAPREMU- the first annualy and the
second every five years, but under this proposed scheme estimates municipal research continued through the development of statistical models for estimating small areas or municipal, statistical developments supported by the decadal national census data, the quinquennial large sample municipal and departmental annual surveys.
In 2007 the Dane proposed National Agricultural Statistical System –SENADER- which main objective to modernize and strengthen national statistical organization, through the implementation of data collection tools and statistics for the agricultural sector and rural social development national and regional for the purpose of comprehensive management support institutional planning and policy formulation, monitoring, evaluation and control institutional management and decision making on the same scale.
The specific objectives of SENADER are:
Generate statistical culture in the rural sector from participation and socialization of the actors involved in the basic information and missionary activity of DANE Analyze and set objectives from the identification of problems caused by the failure of timely and relevant information.
Define strategies, prioritize actions and projects aiming to generate basic information to strengthen the agricultural sector in the country Organize and optimize use of resources, human, physical, financial and information used by actors in the agricultural sector involvement.
Design and implement a modern information system and practical that takes into account the information needs of the various sector actors.
Evaluating and track the actions generated by the information system in place.
This system included four major components:
Productive activities, support activities, social rural development policy and institutional.
This is a conceptualization advanced, comprehensive and complete picture of Colombian agricultural statistical system.
According to José Eddy Torres-2007, public surveys of area, production and performance should focus on agricultural and pastoral areas not covered by the information systems of the unions of agricultural production (according to estimates from this study corresponds to 54% of cultivated area in Colombia) that can provide that information to one articulated system of public agricultural information. It also is recommended as a source of agricultural information administrative records of parafiscals funds to expand the coverage of union information.
system, around two goals: its land use plans-POT and its processes of socio-economic formulation and updating stratification and estimation of rural farm households UAF.
3. AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL LAND INFORMATION NEEDSAccording to the results of a national survey of information users in the agricultural sector by MARD in 1993 indicate strongly territorial information needs, national and departmental levels considered critical information at the municipal.
87% of respondents, demand a high priority, information on area, production and yield, 65%, markets and prices, 50% the land use and other structural variables, 42% production costs, 33% credit, marketing and inventory. The rest of the required information referred to in its order: livestock and pastures, environment, import and export, social and demographic characteristics, employment, fishing and technology, among others.
Differentiating the demand among the public and private, in the first of these retains the overall structure of priorities of information requested, while the second stands out, imports and exports, claimed by 44% of respondents.
With respect to the demand for information regarding the degree of disaggregation of the same, 64% of respondents want information at the municipal level, 15% of respondents requested to be departmental and only 5% require information nationally. For almost all items of information are requested to be municipal disaggregation.
In the public sector demand for municipal information is 69%, 22% regional, and 21% departmental levels. In the case of area, production and yield, 74% of respondents considered to be disaggregated at the municipal level, 14% at the departmental level and only 1% at nationally level. The private sector, 60% require that such information is provided at the municipal level and 20% at the departmental and regional levels. As for presentation, 56% of the informants, requests the raw data about area, production and yields, and the remaining 44% preferred the information analyzed.
Regarding the frequency of information, 42% requested information to be every six months, 33% wants to be per annum and a 13% request wants it to be monthly.
Analyzing separately the public and private sectors, within the public sector to 44% wants semiannual information, 32% annual information, 25% per annum and 20% monthly. In General, the case of area, production and yield 65% want information semi-annual and 16% want information per year. 69% for the public sector, the information semiannual is
more priority than for the private sector, in which only 36% of cases requires it in this way:
Página8 For prices and volumes 35% want information semiannual and 26% monthly. For use of the land: 64% want information annual and 22% semiannual, livestock and
pastures: 56% want monthly and 27% annually. For credit, marketing and inventory: 51% want information every six months and17% monthly.
A second study conducted by the MADR in 2001, makes a new approach to the demand for agricultural information, according to this research productive economic activity requires significant inputs of information to improve the competitiveness of the sector in general. The information for this user group is directly linked to expectations of economic efficiency and profitability, thus the possibility of achieving greater efficiencies in cost reduction; In general, this new approach favors the exchange of information, that is to say, the flow, before the single production. This implies the idea of forming a demand, supply, ones transaction conditions and some intermediaries.
Today demand indicators in the agricultural and rural sector has increased considerably and new products are in demand in relation to economic components, social and environmental, climate change is impacting the Colombian agricultural and socioeconomic system requires continuous monitoring of the impacts, adaptation, mitigation and sustainability of agricultural production systems, welfare topics of the peasant population, standard of living of rural families, the presence of female head of household in the development of farming and rural, income, savings and agricultural and that –SEArural investment, rural wealth, are topics of particular importance must resolves.
4. STATISTICAL SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL COLOMBIA –SEA- DANE.
SEA is proposed by DANE is based on the basic criterion of the possibility of overcoming many problems of statistical territorial development, have been found so far, improving communication and coordination between producers and users of agricultural information and rural, recognizing the needs of statistical information for decision making in the agrifood, rural economic development information needs from a gender perspective, competitive and sustainable agricultural development, environment, develop and implement statistical programs that meet those needs in. The origin of the problem lies in the fact that not enough effort has been made continuously, interdisciplinary, interinstitutional and territorial to develop and operates a regional agricultural statistical system, apart from the severe limitations of financial resources.
unrelated activities. Each activity must operate in complementary interaction with other
activities, so as to harmonize, coordinate and link. It should be:
- Effective and efficient in providing timely, relevant, flexible, accurate, accessible and consistent to those responsible for decisions on agricultural, rural, environmental and food;
- Able to adapt structurally and conceptually to changing conditions, thereby avoiding becoming obsolete concepts and definitions.
- Able to generate rural, environmental and territorial information, besides ensuring the national information
- Compatible with human capabilities, financial and institutional country, as these will grow and develop over time.
Under this conception, -SEA- requires the structure of two subsystems for implementation and the generation of territorial and national statistics.
The first subsystem refers to the analysis focusing on the interpretation and analysis of data from the statistical operations and other sources, in light of existing knowledge and the dissemination of results to those responsible for decision making both at local level municipal and national levels.
The fulfillment of this phase in addition to providing a guide to data analysis will provide in detail the variables under investigation and coverage. Possible to structure the research to be done to meet the new requirements and user demand.
The second subsystem is constituted by the Production of National Statistics and territorial deals with the production of indicators, by observing and measuring the different variables under investigation related to rural socioeconomic activity, agriculture, fisheries, forestry and environmental.
4.1 ANALYSIS SUBSYSTEM OF SEA
Established processes and actors involved, is necessary to determine the causal relationships between different phenomena to be investigated. In this context, and based on the work done by FAO, USDA, BM, EUROSTAT in international level, and the works carried out by MADR and DANE in domestic level can establish different types of analysis, identifying different subject categories (agricultural producers, land, crops, livestock, technology, management, environment, production costs, marketing, profitability, welfare and environmental) indicators and variables that would be required to meet these demands for information.
This subsystem will guide and consolidate the agricultural and rural statistical production, national and territorial, so this subsystem will use all the methods and conceptual developments of data analysis for the optimal development of the system ((Models: predictive, prescriptive, casual, formal, simple math, complex math; logarithmic and semilogarithmic, supply and demand models, simple correlation, standard deviation, coefficient of variation trend rate of growth of demand for a product, supply and demand analysis, construction of indicators and composite indexes, economic and environmental accounts, simulation analysis, mathematical programming, multivariate analysis, analysis of environmental risks, climate change, among others). The figure below shows the area of analysis of SEA and its relation to SEN.
Figure No. 1. Scope of Sea
4.2 THE STATISTICAL PRODUCTION SUBSYSTEM OF SEAIt is understood as an integrated set of research that provide information on various indicators that explain the behavior and evolution of agricultural and environmental.
This system is defined in a program that includes the characterization and behavior of the phenomenon of study special and detailed description of the data that are compiled, the nature of the methods used and statistical operations that to be undertaken together with a schedule tab, processing and dissemination of quantitative information.
The statistical operations should be scheduled in advance, meeting the requirements of users and establishing a priority, given the resource constraints, to maximize the use of the same and achieve economy and efficiency in these.