«THE COLOMBIAN AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS SYSTEM, UNDER A NEW CONCEPTUALIZATION Sergio Enrique Acosta Moreno Leader of Agricultural Statistics Jaime ...»
The preparation and execution of the program will require the evaluation of human resources, infrastructure and organization necessary, included training needs. Moreover, it is necessary to determine the relationships among the aspects to be investigated with a view to the integration, consistency and complementarity of the information obtained.
The program should be considered as an important step in the achievement of statistical development and not just as an inventory of activities and needs. Must not be lost sight of the dynamic nature of the program, especially because its implementation will reflect itself deficiencies and problems that require change, therefore, be crucial permanent surveillance efforts in its organization, execution, to respond to the needs of users.
The objectives proposed with the implementation of production subsystem can be
summarized in the following:
Provide reliable, timely and geographically disaggregated, in order to measure the dynamics of agriculture and its contribution to national economy, domestic consumption, agribusiness, as well as for export (tradable and non tradable).
Similarly, providing information for rural sector development, agriculture and the development of a social agriculture and environmental sustainable.
Provide a basis for the development of national and territorial.
Coordinate and consolidate rural statistics, agricultural, social and agri-environment to avoid duplication and therefore, the dispersion and loss of resources.
Progressively improve the methods and techniques of statistical research applied to the rural sector, agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry Strengthen regional statistical systems.
Empower and train the technical staff of various institutions that make up the system, conducting statistical research To accept the recommendations of international organizations so that national figures can be compared with counterparts in other countries.
Accept the recommendations of international organizations in order that national figures can be compared with counterparts in other countries.
Comply with the fundamental principles of official statistics of UNITED NATIONS To achieve the objectives is raises the formulation and implementation of various investigations, them born from the combination of different subject categories (Number and size of agricultural production units –UPA-, ownership regime of land, rural demographics, farming, fisheries and forestry, agricultural practices, water resource management, employment, costs of production, consumption, prices and profitability, technology, agriculture and environmental management) rural incomes, standard of living of rural families with the research units.
Needless to say given the, variety of subject categories that are needed to analyze the agricultural sector, rural and many of them as inputs for socio-economic for analysis
in other areas, these researches can be classified into two groups:
Which correspond to execute the Colombian agricultural statistical system, through various implementing agencies.
Those general, in addition to serve the agricultural sector analysis, are required in the study of other socioeconomic sectors.
4.3 CONSOLIDATION OF DECENNIAL PLAN OF AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL
STATISTICAL SYSTEMIt is in the plan for structuring statistical operations where it appears as the cornerstone of –SEA-, Third National Agriculture and Rural Census, proposed to take place decadal. This statistical operation is the basis for the definition of territorial statistics program, continuous and deep in the agricultural sector and rural. It is from this research that is obtained best statistical framework for the sector and the opportunity to shape the agricultural and rural statistical system territorial.
The Third National Agriculture Census -CAN-, also allows the construction of rural Colombian registry defined in Act1429 of 2010. The CNA generates a rural record of the companies agricultural and agribusiness production units associated agricultural rural households, the census also allows the construction of rural Colombian registry defined in Act 1429 of 2010, therefore is the basis of records and information systems that would be created in the development of land policy. Regarding the environmental component, the database of a national agricultural census are essential for establishing natural hazards, vulnerability and risk of farming, damage assessment and rehabilitation of areas affected by natural disasters (rainy season, droughts, fires, landslides, earthquakes, health events).
It is important according to the above that the SEA is integrated into the SEN, where it makes present public and private sector in the production of agricultural information, fisheries, forestry, socioeconomic, environmental, rural and users as plaintiffs of it.
Colombia according to the recommendations of the FAO and the United Nations has been working in the integrity of statistics operations inside of DANE. From the point of scientific, technical, technological and operational, redounding in resource economics, technical efficiency and integrated analysis of agriculture and rural sector. Therefore, the effort to unite in the immediate past, the national census of population and housing statistical framework for agricultural and rural agricultural census in the future is a step in the right direction of the system, as shown in Figure No. 2.
Figure No. 2 SEA for long term statistical research methodologies
Source: DANE, SEA.
Into SEA, DANE proposes a system of agricultural statistics and rural long-term, stable ensuring the permanence of national indicators, departmental and municipal, bearing in mind that the base is the Third National Agricultural Census or failing the national census by product and overall national population census, housing and economic development. The census is the basis of regional statistics; it is from this research model that can integrate land information needs (municipality, department and country) establish the different methodologies and strategy in time for the system implementation. The following is a proposal Preliminary Decennial Integrated Plan of SEA an accounting approach following the scheme of the system of national accounts considered by SEN such as statistical strategy.
The focus of agricultural resource accounting is to identify and quantify their flow from the production of seeds, soil preparation, planting, breeding, management and extraction and harvesting environment, through successive stages of development, waste management and return of these to the economic sector for its transformation. Also, given the statistical operations should take into account the changing needs of users, the socioeconomic reality of the country, development plan and agricultural policies (Policies: land, rural development, supply chains, science and technology sector's competitiveness, agricultural health and food safety, agricultural insurance, credit and prices, housing and food security, rural household welfare, environment, foreign trade).
5. METHODOLOGICAL ALTERNATIVESFrom the national agricultural census or agricultural censuses by product (or national population census, housing and economic), there are a wide range of methodologies for the production of regional statistics, as shown in Figure No. 4 can not design a national census on the SEA without thinking long term and geographically. The design should combine these two essential elements of the system, for reasons of efficiency, completeness, comprehensiveness, relevance, adaptability and quality statistics.
In principle in the field of objective statistics, the ideal is to start the system from the national agricultural census and research performed by using administrative records intercensal statistical, (INDEC, IBGE, INEGI, INE, USDA, EUROSTAT), samples of elements, cluster sampling, (FAO-1982 - 1996), censuses products, (DANE, INDEC, 2010), sampling of small areas (Rao JNK, 2001), Optimal spatial sampling, (Arbia Giuseppe, 2001), national forest inventories and biodiversity (Gschwantner Thomas, 2009;
Loetsch F, Haller KE, 1964; Rondeux J, 2001); Statistical models for estimating and forecasting (Genovese, 2001; USDA-1987-2010, IBGE, 1996-2010), agricultural crops objetives forecast (FEDECAFE, INDEC, IBGE, USDA, INEGI, Eurostat, 2010), inventories of greenhouse gases (IPPC-IDEAM) or a combination of the above methods.
Always departmental and national levels will be united with the municipal level, where there are the sources of system information (the farmer and agricultural activities).
The topics and methodologies listed above can be structured territorially, harmonized.
In the field of statistics are not objective, consensus is the only municipal research in agriculture that has often been in the production of territorial indicators at this level, The MADR has been making major efforts to become a municipal administrative record, this method relied on geographic information systems and under the conceptualization of a statistical investigation is a suitable method for the provision of territorial indicators. An example of this is the administrative record in growing cotton, under the administration of the Corporation Colombia International –CCI- This record was designed by DANE in conjunction with the MADR in 2000 (and with the support of CONALGODON, local guilds and producers) and was continued by the CCI under an agreement with the MADR from 2005. Currently this methodology is structured from the registration form, production and industrialization of cotton each season, and geographic information support to the plot land level, georeferenced by the respective element of cotton producers guilds.
unionization for testing plots land and planted areas. The operation of the registry is monitored through the chain of cotton, textiles and clothing. The program of agricultural production chains currently operating (32) working under a compliance plan,
monitoring and evaluation of short term (quarterly, semiannual and annual), in this process are structured scenarios for evaluating the statistics sub-sectorials, which are fundamental to evaluate the performance of the indicators of productivity, profitability and optimization.
This is an optimal scenario that the MADR is using to strengthen the Information System of Colombian agricultural sector, -SISAC-, where representatives of the links are in the chain, primary, secondary and tertiary and under full cooperation inside it. In the private sector guilds have been developing the production censuses and administrative complex with high standards of quality and statistical breakdown at the municipal level (Asocaña - Cenicaña, FEDECAFE, parafiscal funds of agricultural), Given the interest guild development of farming, these investigations identify, measure and monitor the performance of the agricultural activity at the farm level - - Farm and in some cases plot level (Cenicaña – Asocaña, Fedecafé, Fedepalma). In this segment there is great potential for generating territorial agricultural statistics.
FEDECAFE is the guild with more experience in the information production sector, in 1932 was made the first census Coffee, with a planted area of 356,245 ha. in 1955-1956, Census Coffee was update by a national sample coffee. In 1970 the Second National Census Coffee in 1980 took place the Third National Census of Coffee, in this statistical operation used intensively mapping and aerial photography, 1:10,000 (about 100,000 aerial photographs), and 1993-1997 was carried out the Fourth National Census Coffee, with coverageof 3,600,000 ha. in 600 municipalities and 20 departments. The census obtained information from producers, farms, plots, houses, infrastructure and homes, both coffee and other, capturing 669,000 units of agricultural production, (89% less than 3 ha) 566,000 farmers, 800,000 ha. Crop (technified 609,000) From the last coffee census, the guild structured Coffee Information System – SICA- in this system is provided for the objetive forecasting of crop, the administrative plot record and coffee farm for the generation of technological indicators, productive and social and is investigating it in production costs, productivity, traceability, other products grown in coffee farms, holds the record for production volume, export and import of the fruit, domestic and international prices, the production value, value of exports and domestic consumption.
Other researches related to territorial agricultural statistics are the economic research of the land, rural socio economic stratification, the estimation of the family farm unit –UAFunder the responsibility of DANE, the value of the assets of rural land, geo-economic studies, physically homogeneous areas, rural cadastral formation required for the establishment of the rural tax base under municipal responsibility, is an important source for concurrent structuring of agricultural statistical system and particularly municipal territorial Local governments have records of each rural property owners of rural land, and therefore constitutes an excellent medium for the development of administrative records that can be integrated with departmental systems and national agricultural statistics. Also, Página18 at this level territorial administrative records are concomitant with the municipal tax system to complement the scope of the SEA, related to the activities of industry,
commerce and service in the agricultural sector. Below in Figure No. 4. Presents the methodological framework of territorial SEA.