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«Item type text; Electronic Dissertation Authors Arnold, Linda N R Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is held by the author. ...»

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The Inclusion Puzzle: A Case Study of Inclusion in a Rural

Elementary School

Item type text; Electronic Dissertation

Authors Arnold, Linda N R

Publisher The University of Arizona.

Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this

material is made possible by the University Libraries,

University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction

or presentation (such as public display or performance) of

protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.

Downloaded 14-Jul-2016 04:32:54 Link to item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/195959

THE INCLUSION PUZZLE:

A CASE STUDY OF INCLUSION IN A RURAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

by Linda N. Arnold _______________________________

Copyright © Linda N. Arnold 2010 A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the

DEPARTMENT OF DISABILITY AND PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL STUDIES

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

DOCTOR OF EDUCATION

WITH A MAJOR IN SPECIAL EDUCATION

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

GRADUATE COLLEGE

As members of the Dissertation Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by Linda N. Arnold entitled The Inclusion Puzzle: A Case Study of Inclusion in a Rural Elementary School and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Education.

______________________________________________________Date: April 12, 2010 Dr. C. June Maker, Ph. D.

______________________________________________________Date: April 12, 2010 Dr. Jane Erin, Ph. D.

______________________________________________________Date: April 12, 2010 Dr. Maria Nahmias, Ph. D.

______________________________________________________Date: April 12, 2010 Dr. J. Robert Hendricks, Ed. D.

Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate’s submission of the final copies of the dissertation to the Graduate College.

I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.

______________________________________________________Date: April 30, 2010 Dissertation Co-Director: Dr. C. June Maker, Ph. D.

______________________________________________________Date: April 30, 2010 Dissertation Co-Director: Dr. Jane Erin, Ph. D.

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from the dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder.

–  –  –

This work is for the dedicated, highly professional educators and the students at the study school, for the gift of their friendship and the opportunity to put together the inclusion puzzle in their setting.

–  –  –

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE-LOOKING AT THE PUZZLE OF INCLUSION

My Perceptions of Separate Service Delivery for Special Education

Special Education in the Study School

History of Integrative Practices in Education

A New View

Culture of Education

Culture of Education Defined

–  –  –

Purpose of the Study

Framework of the Study

Study Design

Significance of the Study

Definitions of Key Terms

Organization of the Dissertation

CHAPTER TWO-LOOKING AT THE PIECES OF THE INCLUSION PUZZLE.......43 Controversies and Problems

Philosophies of Delivery of Special Education Services

–  –  –

The Conception of Inclusion

Definitions of Inclusion

What Inclusion Was

What Inclusion Was Not

Continuum of Services

Responsibility for Service Delivery

Setting or Service Delivery, the Question of Place

Philosophy of Separate Setting

Philosophy of Inclusion

–  –  –

The Development of Inclusion Practice

National Studies of Inclusion Practice

United States Department of Education

National Center for Educational Restructuring and Inclusion

The Council for Exceptional Children

Success of Students with Special Needs

Studies of Students’ Academic Progress in Schools with Inclusion Models.........66 Academic Progress from One Perspective (Zigmond, Jenkins, Fuchs, Deno, Fuchs, Baker, & Couthino, 1995)

Academic Progress from Another Perspective (Waldron & McLeskey, 1998)

–  –  –

Theories about Measuring Student Progress





Studies of Teachers’ Perceptions of Inclusion

Teachers’ Perspectives of the Concept of Inclusion (Vaughn, Schumm, Jallad, Slusher, and Saumell, 1996)

Overview of Special Education Services in Four Elementary Schools (Idol, 2006)

A Special Education Teachers’ Changing Roles (Klingner & Vaughn, 2002)

Educators’ Abilities to Educate Special Education Students (O’Shea, Stoddard, & O’Shea 2000)

Theories of Teachers’ Perceptions of Inclusion

Studies of the Components of Inclusion Models

Identification of Common Themes in Inclusion Programs (Baker & Zigmond, 1995)

Context for Inclusion

Model of Inclusion

Role of the Special Education Teacher

–  –  –

Administrators’ Support and Involvement in Inclusion Programs (Idol, 2006)

–  –  –

Six Themes for Initiating and Implementing Inclusion (Vaughn & Schumm, 1996)

Differences in How Readily Teachers Adopt Learning Strategies (Brownell, Adams, Sindelar, Waldron, & Vanhover, 2006)

Collaboration Among Key Stakeholders for Implementing Inclusion (Rebecca Smith and Pauline Leonard, 2008)

Theories about Components of Inclusion Practice

Models and Classroom Practices that Support Inclusion

Differentiated Instruction

Curriculum Overlapping

Coteaching

Inclusion Components

Elements of Inclusion, A Closer Look

Visionary Leadership

Site Administrator

Other Levels of Visionary Leadership

Collaboration

Supports for Students and Staff

Student Support

Staff Development and Pre-Training for Inclusion

Planning time

–  –  –

Funding

Parent Involvement

–  –  –

Differing Roles for Teachers

Classroom Practices

Curricular Issues

Teacher Buy-in

Effective Inclusion Programs, Successful Inclusion

Establishing Standards for Inclusion in Schools

Instruments for Assessing Teachers’ Readiness for Inclusion.................138 Critique of Vaughn, Schumm, and Brick’s Rating Scale of Components of a Responsible Inclusion Program for Students with High-Incidence Disabilities

Theories of Evaluation of Inclusion

New Directions of Evaluation in Schools

Approaches to Evaluation of Inclusion

Reflective Practice

Spirit of Inquiry

Specific Purposes for Evaluation

–  –  –

The Philosophical Change to the Decision to Implement Inclusion

Schools as Learning Communities

Inclusion of Special Education Students within the Learning Community..........154 Setting the Stage

Climate of Change

Risk-Taking

Celebrating Success

Consensus Building and Teacher Buy-In As Specific Requirements for Initiating School Change and Implementing an Innovation

The Importance of School Consensus for Inclusion

The Importance of Teacher Investment for Inclusion Practice................159 Conclusions

CHAPTER THREE-PUTTING THE INCLUSION PUZZLE TOGETHER...............162 Purpose of the Study

Framework of the Study

The Case Study of the School

Description of the Study as an Historical Organizational Case Study................166 Approach to Reporting

Style of the Report

Participant Observation

My Roles and Levels of Participation

–  –  –

From Active Participant to Participant-Observer

Entering the Field

Re-Entering the Field

Model of Service Delivery: A Description of Inclusion Practice in the Study School

Initiation and Early Implementation of Inclusion

Collaboration as a Primary Tool to Establish Inclusion

Refocused Use of the Resource Room

Administrative Support for Inclusion Practice

Resistance to Inclusion

Resistance from the Principal

Resistance from General Education Teachers

Resistance Because of Discipline Concerns

–  –  –

Concerns

Resistance from Special Education Staff Members

Resistance from Parents

The Study School’s Culture

Accommodating Learning Differences

Climate of Teacher Leadership

School Members’ Attitudes Toward Change

–  –  –

Participants

Adults in the School

Special Education Students in the School

Special Education in the School Prior to Inclusion

My Role in the School Prior to Inclusion

The Study Design

Overview of Data Collected

Instruments

Informal Program Evaluation: Early Assessment of Program Effectiveness

–  –  –

Abernathy, Butera, & Lesar, 1991

Open-Ended Questionnaire Addressing Specific Curriculum Areas and Inclusion Practices

Student Interviews

–  –  –

Education Staff Members

Formal Program Evaluation: Perceptions of Inclusion Practice in the School

–  –  –

Success of Inclusion

The Checklist of Inclusion Elements

Dialogue Groups

Individual Administrator Interviews

Follow-Up Interviews with Administrators and Questionnaires from Key Stakeholders

–  –  –

Follow-Up Administrator Interviews

Researchers’ Observations and Questions about Inclusion Elements..................216 Data Analysis

Summary

CHAPTER FOUR-FINDING WHERE SOME PUZZLE PIECES FIT

Analysis of the Data

What Was the Setting to Promote Inclusion Philosophy and Practice in the School?

The Vision for Inclusion in the School

Administrative Support

Culture and Climate of the School

Climate of Change in the School

–  –  –

What Were the Activities to Promote Inclusion Practice that Were Initiated and Developed in the School from the Inception of Inclusion to the Conclusion of the Study?

Activities within the Service Delivery Model that Promoted Inclusion Practice

Refocused Use of the Resource Room

Collaboration

–  –  –

Questionnaires

Teaching Staff Members’ Perceptions of the Elements of Successful Inclusion

Observations of Classrooms for the Elements of Inclusion

What Were School Members’ Attitudes and Beliefs about Inclusion in the School?

Informal Program Evaluation: Early Assessment of Program Effectiveness

The First Questionnaire

–  –  –

Spring 1997

Student Preferences

Formal Data Collection

Definitions of Inclusion and Success

–  –  –

Negative Aspects of Inclusion

Interviews with Administrators

Follow Up Data Collection

–  –  –

Principal

The Questionnaire for Special Education Staff

Interview with the Principal

My Conversation with the Incoming Principal

Informal Conversations with Key Teachers

Summary of the Findings in Response to the Research Questions

What Was the Setting that Promoted Inclusion Philosophy and Practice in the School?

What Were the Activities to Promote Inclusion Practice that Were Initiated and Developed in the School from the Inception of Inclusion to the Conclusion of the Study?

–  –  –

the School?

Perceptions from Informal Instruments

–  –  –

CHAPTER FIVE-LOOKING AT THE PICTURE OF INCLUSION

A View of Inclusion Outcomes in the School

Relationships of this Case Study to Other Studies

Comparisons of Studies about Teachers’ Perceptions of Inclusion.........270 Similarities Between the Three Studies

Differences Between the Three Studies

Comparisons of Studies about Inclusion Components

Similarities Between the Three Studies

Differences Between the Three Studies

What Can Be Determined from this Study?

Analysis of the Decline of Inclusion in the School

My Role as Visionary Leader of Inclusion in the School

–  –  –

Changes Occurred

Why Did I Obtain the Results that Were Yielded in the Study?

Limitations of the Study

–  –  –

Implications for Practice: Substance of the Findings for Use by Schools..........294 Areas for Further Research about Inclusion

APPENDIX A- RATING SCALE AND CHECKLIST

APPENDIX B- STUDY INSTRUMENTS

REFERENCES

–  –  –

Table 1 Factors, Principles, and Themes for Inclusion

Table 2 Core Themes and Operationalized Components of Vaughn, Brick, and Schumm’s Rating Scale of Components of a Responsible Inclusion Program for Students with High-Incidence Disabilities



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