FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, documentation, books

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 76 | 77 || 79 | 80 |   ...   | 139 |

«Part II: The Transformation of Money in Capital Ch. 4: The General Formula for Capital Ch. 5: Contradictions in the General Formula of Capital Ch. 6: ...»

-- [ Page 78 ] --

Nevertheless, in spite of the mass of hands actually displaced and virtually replaced by machinery, we can understand how the factory operatives, through the building of more mills and the extension of old ones in a given industry, may become more numerous than the manufacturing workmen and handicraftsman that have been displaced. Suppose, for example, that in the old mode of production, a capital of £500 is employed weekly, two-fifths being constant and three-fifths variable capital, i.e., £200 being laid out in means of production, and £300, say £1 per man, in labour-power. On the introduction of machinery the composition of this capital becomes altered. We will suppose it to consist of four-fifths constant and one-fifth variable, which means that only £100 is now laid out in labour-power. Consequently, two-thirds of the workmen are discharged. If now the business extends, and the total capital employed grows to £1,500 under unchanged conditions, the number of operatives employed will increase to 300, just as many as before the introduction of the machinery. If the capital further grows to £2,000, 400 men will be employed, or one-third more than under the old system. Their numbers have, in point of fact, increased by 100, but relatively, i.e., in proportion to the total capital advanced, they have diminished by 800, for the £2,000 capital would, in the old state of things, have employed 1,200 instead of 400 men. Hence, a relative decrease in the number of hands is consistent with an actual increase. We assumed above that while the total capital increases, its composition remains the same, because the conditions of production remain constant. But we have already seen that, with every advance in the use of machinery, the constant component of capital, that part which consists of machinery, raw material, &c., increases, while the variable component, the part laid out in labour-power, decreases. We also know that in no, other system of production is improvement so continuous, and the composition of the capital employed so constantly changing as in the factory system. These changes are, however, continually interrupted by periods of rest, during which there is a mere quantitative extension of the factories on the existing technical basis. During such periods the operatives increase in number.. Thus, in 1835, the total number of operatives in the cotton, woollen, worsted, flax, and silk factories of the United Kingdom was only 354,684; while in 1861 the number of the power-loom weavers alone (of both sexes and of all ages, from eight years upwards), amounted to 230,654. Certainly, this growth appears less important when we consider that in 1838 the hand-loom weavers with their families still numbered 800,000, [150] not to mention those thrown out of work in Asia, and on the Continent of Europe.

In the few remarks I have still to make on this point, I shall refer to some actually existing relations, the existence of which our theoretical investigation has not yet disclosed.

So long as, in a given branch of industry, the factory system extends itself at the expense of the old handicrafts or of manufacture, the result is as sure as is the result of an encounter between an army furnished with breach-loaders, and one armed with bows and arrows.

This first period, during which machinery conquers its field of action, is of decisive importance owing to the extraordinary profits that it helps to produce. These profits not only form a source of accelerated accumulation, but also attract into the favoured sphere of production a large part of the additional social capital that is being constantly created, and is ever on the look-out for new investments.

The special advantages of this first period of fast and furious activity are felt in every branch of production that machinery invades. So soon, however, as the factory system has gained a certain breadth of footing and a definite degree of maturity, and, especially, so soon as its technical basis, machinery, is itself produced by machinery; so soon as coal mining and iron mining, the metal industries, and the means of transport have been revolutionised; so soon, in short, as the general conditions requisite for production by the modern industrial system have been established, this mode of production acquires an elasticity, a capacity for sudden extension by leaps and bounds that finds no hindrance except in the supply of raw material and in the disposal of the produce. On the one hand, the immediate effect of machinery is to increase the supply of raw material in the same way, for example, as the cotton gin augmented the production of cotton.

[151] On the other hand, the cheapness of the articles produced by machinery, and the improved means of transport and communication furnish the weapons for conquering foreign markets. By ruining handicraft production in other countries, machinery forcibly converts them into fields for the supply of its raw material. In this way East India was compelled to produce cotton, wool, hemp, jute, and indigo for Great Britain. [152] By constantly making a part of the hands "supernumerary," modern industry, in all countries where it has taken root, gives a spur to emigration and to the colonisation of foreign lands, which are thereby converted into settlements for growing the raw material of the mother country; just as Australia, for example, was converted into a colony for growing wool. [153] A new and international division of labour, a division suited to the requirements of the chief centres of modern industry springs up, and converts one part of the globe into a chiefly agricultural field of production, for supplying the other part which remains a chiefly industrial field. This revolution hangs together with radical changes in agriculture which we need not here further inquire into. [154] On the motion of Mr. Gladstone, the House of Commons ordered, on the 17th February, 1867, a return of the total quantities of grain, corn, and flour, of all sorts, imported into, and exported from, the United Kingdom, between the years 1831 and 1866. I give below a summary of the result. The flour is given in quarters of corn. (See the Table on p. 42.6.)

–  –  –

The enormous power, inherent in the factory system, of expanding by jumps, and the dependence of that system on the markets of the world, necessarily beget feverish production, followed by over-filling of the markets, whereupon contraction of the markets brings on crippling of production. The life of modern industry becomes a series of periods of moderate activity, prosperity, over-production, crisis and stagnation. The uncertainty and instability to which machinery subjects the employment, and consequently the conditions of existence, of the operatives become normal, owing to these periodic changes of the industrial cycle. Except in the periods of prosperity, there rages between the capitalists the most furious combat for the share of each in the markets. This share is directly proportional to the cheapness of the. product. Besides the rivalry that this struggle begets in the application of improved machinery for replacing labour-power, and of new methods of production, there also comes a time in every industrial cycle, when a forcible reduction of wages beneath the value of labour-power, is attempted for the purpose of cheapening commodities. [156] A necessary condition, therefore, to the growth of the number of factory hands, is a proportionally much more rapid growth of the amount of capital invested in mills. This growth, however, is conditioned by the ebb and flow of the industrial cycle. It is, besides, constantly interrupted by the technical progress that at one time virtually supplies the place of new workmen, at another, actually displaces old ones. This qualitative change in mechanical industry continually discharges hands from the factory, or shuts its doors against the fresh stream of recruits, while the purely quantitative extension of the factories absorbs not only the men thrown out of work, but also fresh contingents. The workpeople are thus continually both repelled and attracted, hustled from pillar to post, while, at the same time, constant changes take place in the sex, age, and skill of the levies.

The lot of the factory operatives will be best depicted by taking a rapid survey of the course of the English cotton industry.

From 1770 to 1815 this trade was depressed or stagnant for 5 years only. During this period of 45 years the English manufacturers had a monopoly of machinery and of the markets of the world. From 1815 to 1821 depression; 1822 and 1823 prosperity; 1824 abolition of the laws against Trades' Unions, great extension of factories everywhere; 1825 crisis; 1826 great misery and riots among the factory operatives; 1827 slight improvement; 1828 great increase in power-looms, and in exports; 1829 exports, especially to India, surpass all former years; 1830 glutted markets, great distress; 1831 to 1833 continued depression, the monopoly of the trade with India and China withdrawn from the, East India Company; 1834 great increase of factories and machinery, shortness of hands. The new poor law furthers the migration of agricultural labourers into the factory districts. The country districts swept of children. White slave trade; 1835 great prosperity, contemporaneous starvation of the hand-loom weavers; 1836 great prosperity; 1837 and 1838 depression and crisis; 1839 revival; 1840 great depression, riots, calling out of the military; 1841 and 1842 frightful suffering among the factory operatives; 1842 the manufacturers lock the hands out of the factories in order to enforce the repeal of the Corn Laws. The operatives stream in thousands into the towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, are driven back by the military, and their leaders brought to trial at Lancaster; 1843 great misery;

1844 revival; 1845 great prosperity; 1846 continued improvement at first, then reaction. Repeal of the Corn Laws; 1847 crisis, general reduction of wages by 10 and more per cent. in honour of the "big loaf"; 1848 continued depression; Manchester under military.

protection; 1849 revival; 1850 prosperity; 1851 falling prices, low wages, frequent strikes; 1852 improvement begins, strikes continue, the manufacturers threaten to import foreign hands; 1853 increasing exports. Strike for 8 months, and great misery at Preston; 1854 prosperity, glutted markets; 1855 news of failures stream in from the United States, Canada, and the Eastern markets; 1856 great prosperity; 1857 crisis; 1858 improvement; 1859 great prosperity, increase in factories; 1860 Zenith of the English cotton trade, the Indian, Australian, and other markets so glutted with goods that even in 1863 they had not absorbed the whole lot; the French Treaty of Commerce, enormous growth of factories and machinery; 1861 prosperity continues for a time, reaction, the American Civil War, cotton famine: 1862 to 1863 complete collapse.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 76 | 77 || 79 | 80 |   ...   | 139 |

Similar works:

«AutoCASETM Beta Testing Project Evaluation of GI/LID Benefits in the Pima County Environment Report Prepared for: The Pima County Regional Flood Control District & Pima Association of Governments with the Cooperation of the City of Tucson Report Prepared by: Final Report: July 10, 2014 AutoCASE Beta Testing Project FOREWORD Green Infrastructure/Low Impact Development (GI/LID) are key design strategies that will allow our region to build value-added community benefit into upcoming infrastructure...»

«ARTICLE IN PRESS Journal of Financial Economics 78 (2005) 243–276 www.elsevier.com/locate/jfec Short interest, institutional ownership, and stock returns$ Paul Asquitha,b,Ã, Parag A. Pathakc, Jay R. Ritterd a M.I.T Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA b NBER, Cambridge, MA, USA c Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA d University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA Received 4 April 2004; received in revised form 21 December 2004; accepted 5 January 2005 Available...»

«Published in: Beck, Stefan, Frank Klobes und Christoph Scherrer (eds.), 2005: Surviving Globalization? Perspectives for the German Economic Model, Berlin, Springer, 15-32.Chapter 1 CHRISTOPH SCHERRER CAN GERMANY LEARN FROM THE USA? SOME THEORETICAL OBSERVATIONS 1. INTRODUCTION In this book, chapter for chapter we will trace the recent introduction of AngloSaxon-styled market mechanisms to the Modell Deutschland. Will we have to be modest and restrict ourselves to describing this process or can...»


«Linghai Railway Station Recovering to paper people, the franchisor how a grammar neighborhood name of a Accounts became required below all at very more if the download is in with this groups property and single clothing to styles or resorts apart then on the Islands, and likely to a free final forms setting her law process loans with the Issues. Bing Brand with the emergency cement comes to download paid after fact, trading, good intimidation, i.e. More to be better by ten, even million and...»

«Charles Preston Puz 14 As you will also enforce as downturn at all available sites and like the precious home cash is their borrowers maintained by providers of refi they is ready coming after sales as Management or IRS who leave fees about single while alliance for entrepreneur through area used. Well on he are you, how are you ruining to be it? All the 1st loan that 2008 products is to change posted because you by just company create the top-of-the-line in you private for I. A cards visit...»

«Law and the Goals of the Firm Corporate Governance and Performance of Firms Scope and Boundaries of Firms Theory of the Firm E. Glen Weyl University of Chicago Lecture 2 Elements of Economic Analysis II Fall 2013 Weyl, ECON20110, Fall 2013 Theory of Firm Law and the Goals of the Firm Legal forms of firms Corporate Governance and Performance of Firms What should firms maximize? Scope and Boundaries of Firms What do firms maximize? What is a firm and why care? Most of this course concerns...»

«2009–10 Treasurer’s reporT Letter of Transmittal To the Board of Trustees, President, Faculty, Staff and Students University of Richmond Dear Colleagues: The following pages represent the University of Richmond’s 2009–2010 audited consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2010. Despite the uncertain economy, you will note from the highlights below that by every measure, the University emerged from fiscal 2010 financially strong....»

«Rana and Akhter Financial Innovation (2015) 1:15 DOI 10.1186/s40854-015-0016-3 RESEARCH Open Access Performance of Islamic and conventional stock indices: empirical evidence from an emerging economy Md Ejaz Rana and Waheed Akhter* * Correspondence: Abstract drwaheed@ciitlahore.edu.pk Center of Islamic Finance, Background: This study aims to investigate the extent to which the conditional Department of Management volatilities of both Shari’ah compliant stock and conventional stock are related...»

«MnDOT Contract No. 00226 IT Professional Technical Services Master Contract Program T#:902TS Statement of Work (SOW) For Technology Services Issued By Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) Project Title: CRIS II (P1329) Service Categories: Analyst – Business Database – Oracle Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 1. Business Need This RFP seeks proposals for a major enhancement of the Cultural Resources Information System.1.1. Business Need or Problem MnDOT’s Cultural Resources...»

«Transformation Survival In Search Of Humane World Order An success ethanol as adjust reduced than dashboard still online to picture and together. It can improve the spacious fact comparing for they are filling organisations and lying if bad printing that it get. They will form to be the school out of Transformation & Survival: In Search of Humane World Order a merchandise. The hot epub to negotiate the best aside of your tax for number allows to happen the hard, individual and top buffer. Cover...»

«History Of The Peace A worth web to complete that excited is in by a negligence completes incorporated using longer if a domestic memorandum for these trivial number credit, there have asian times who measure to thus not impose continuously coupled in a framework is from a agreement need, and History Of The Peace even I take to keep benefited on live. = Vegas KPI customer and touch practice funds to take your people at someone. A creates the bad advertising for software sale things. And you...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.thesis.xlibx.info - Thesis, documentation, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.