«The CCA’s new edition of Useful Statistics is a tool for anyone and everyone interested in concrete data that reflects the impact of arts, culture, ...»
The CCA updates its numbers!
The CCA’s new edition of Useful Statistics is a tool for anyone and everyone interested in
concrete data that reflects the impact of arts, culture, and heritage in the Canadian economy
and society. This document also informs us on the current state of our cultural industries.
Committed to providing timely and relevant research on Canada’s arts and culture, the
Canadian Conference of the Arts has decided to revise these statistics and provide everyone with more current data on the status of the arts and culture in Canada. As you read this document you will notice that the some data is dated to our previous documents. Due to cuts at Statistics Canada within the culture portfolio, it is increasingly difficult to obtain regular and consistent data on arts and culture. One result of this is that our information is drawn from a variety of sources, with often competing numbers. The goal of the CCA is to analyze these numbers and provide the sector with the best possible data, while acknowledging that the sector must continue to pursue access to rigorous data in order to understand how our sector is functioning.
This document contains statistics on:
Economic Dimensions of the Arts, Culture, and Heritage Sector General Data o Exports and Imports o Cultural Tourism o
Social Dimensions of the Arts, Culture, and Heritage Sector, including:
The Culture Labour Force o Writers in Quebec Consumption of Cultural Goods o Arts Organizations o
Cultural Sectors and Industries, including:
Performing Arts o Heritage Sector o The Book Publishing Industry o Radio o Sound recording and music publishing o Satellite and Cable Television o Television o film, video and audio-visual post-production o The film, video and audio-visual distribution industry o March 13, 2012 Canadian Conference of the Arts 1 Internet o Economic Dimensions of the Arts Culture and Heritage Sector General Data The Conference Board of Canada estimates that the economic footprint of Canada’s culture sector was $84.6 billion in 2007, or 7.4% of Canada’s total real GDP, including direct, indirect, and induced contributions. Culture sector employment exceeded 1.1 million jobs in 2007.1 The direct impact of cultural activities in Canada, as measured by its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), amounted to more than $39 billion (approximately 3.8%.2 of Canadian GDP) in 2002.
In 2008-09, governments spent $9.3 billion on culture, excluding transfers between different levels of government. This represents a 16% increase from 2003-04 (after adjusting for inflation). 3 Provincial and municipal expenditures on culture increased substantially between 2003and 2008-09 (29% and 22%, respectively, after adjusting for inflation). Federal cultural spending increased by 4% during the same timeframe. These figures include transfers between levels of government.
In 2008-09, federal government spending on culture (including transfers) was $4.0 billion (41% of spending by all levels of government), while the provinces and territories spent $3.0 billion (31%) and municipalities $2.7 billion (28%). (The federal, provincial and municipal breakdowns include $0.5 billion in transfers between governments and therefore do not equal the $9.3 billion total, which is net of transfers.) Exports and Imports Statistics Canada reports that exports of culture goods—such as books, art and films— totalled $1.7 billion in 2008, while imports totalled $4.1 billion, resulting in a cultural trade deficit of $2.4 billion.4 Exports of writing and published works totalled $628.1 million in 2008, representing 37% of all culture goods exports. The writing and published works sector peaked in 1997, at 46% of all culture goods exports, but it has been gradually losing ground to other culture categories ever since.
Canada is a net exporter of cultural services such as film production, film distribution and advertising. In 2007, exports of cultural services reached $2.9 billion and imports reached $2.7 billion. Film-related exports totalled $1.6 billion, 54% of all cultural service exports.
Each of Canada’s trading partners around the world import and export a different blend of culture goods. Books make up the overwhelming majority of Canada’s cultural trade with France, reaching 74% of exports and 53% of imports in 2008—greater proportions than any other country.
1 Conference Board of Canada, “Valuing Culture: Measuring and Understanding Canada’s Creative Economy,” July 2008.
2 "Focus on Culture", Statistics Canada, Vol. 15 No. 1, April 2005 3 Statistics Canada - Government Expenditures on Culture: Data Tables 2008/2009, May 4, 2011 4 Statistics Canada – Culture & leisure imports and exports, October 2010
Cultural Tourism Cultural tourism is a fast-growing and lucrative segment of the North American travel
Tourism receipts from cultural tourists amounted to $8,034 million in 2007 7. Canadian tourists accounted for $5.2 million of receipts in cultural tourism.
The gross domestic product derived from cultural tourism in 2007 amounted to over $5.1 billion and produced labour income of almost $3.3 billion.
The number of artists represents 0.8% of the overall Canadian labour force. The number of artists is slightly larger than the number of Canadians directly employed in the automotive industry (135,000).9 5 Statistics Canada – International Trade in cultural goods – 2002- 2009 – current dollars – October 2010 6 Burnett Thorne Cultural Tourism “On Stream,” Vol. 2 I.3, 2004.
7 The impact of cultural activities in sports Tourism in Canada – March 2009 for Heritage Canada & Industry Canada 8 Hill Strategies Research, Statistical Insights on the arts - based on Statistics Canada’s 2006 – February 2009 9 The automotive industry figure is from the Canadian Auto Workers union, as reported in a November 13, 2008 CBC article entitled A timeline of auto sector layoffs, http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2008/10/21/f‐autolayoffs.html. This page was viewed on January 12, 2009
At 42%, the percentage of artists who are self‐employed is six times the self‐employment rate in the overall labour force (7%).
Although artists work in many different sectors of the economy, the top three industries employ about three‐quarters of artists: arts, entertainment and recreation (52,600 artists);
educational services (28,700); and information and cultural industries (25,500).
The cultural sector has about 609,000 workers and comprises 3.3% of the overall labour force in Canada. One in every 30 people in Canada has a cultural occupation. This is about double the level of employment in the forestry sector in Canada (300,000) and more than double the level of employment in Canadian banks (257,000). 10 Forty‐three percent of artists earn less than $10,000, compared with 25% of the overall labour force. Another 19% of artists earn between $10,000 and $19,999, compared with 16% of the overall labour force. Taken together, these statistics show that 62% of artists earn less than $20,000, compared with 41% of the overall labour force.
Women earn less than men in all nine of the arts occupations. In one arts occupations (“conductors, composers and arrangers”), women’s earnings amount to just over one‐ half of men’s earnings. Only in one arts occupation (“producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations”) do women’s earnings come within 10% of men’s earnings.
The percentage of artists with a bachelor’s degree or higher (39%) is nearly double the rate in the overall labour force (21%).
The 3,300 Aboriginal artists represent 2.4% of all artists, which is less than the percentage of Aboriginal people in the overall labour force (2.9%).
The 14,900 visible minority artists represent 11% of all artists, lower than the percentage of visible minority Canadians in the overall labour force (15%). Two‐thirds of visible minority artists are first‐generation immigrants (66%).
The 28,400 immigrant artists account for one‐fifth of all artists, almost exactly the same percentage as immigrants in the overall labour force (21%). 11
10 Forestry Products Association of Canada press release, Forest Industry Sets Urgent Priorities for Federal Budget, December 16, 2008, and Canadian Bankers Assocation, Quick Facts, 11 The term “immigrant” refers to people who are, or have been, landed immigrants in Canada. A landed immigrant is a person who has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities 12 "Focus on Culture", Statistics Canada, Vol. 15 No. 1, April 2005.
Two-thirds (65 %) of Quebec’s writers earned less than $5,000 from their literary works, while 22 % (or 330 people) pulled in between $5,000 and $19,999 and 13 %, earned $20,000 or more. Approximately 30 writers (2%) received $60,000 or more for their literary work. The median revenue earned from writing was $2,450.
Consumption of cultural goods:14 Canadian consumers spent over $27 billion on cultural goods and services in 2008. The $27.4 billion in consumer spending on culture in Canada represents $841 for every Canadian resident. Consumer spending on culture is three times larger than the $9.2 billion spent on culture by all levels of government in 2007/08.
Canadians’ spending on live performing arts ($1.4 billion) is more than double their spending on live sports events ($650 million).
Cultural spending per capita varies significantly between the provinces and is highest in Alberta ($963) and Saskatchewan ($905). The five western-most provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario) have per capita levels of cultural spending that are above the Canadian average ($841).
Among 12 metropolitan areas, Calgary and Saskatoon have the highest per capita consumer spending on cultural goods and services.
Spending on books ($1.4 billion) was slightly higher than spending on movie theatre admissions ($1.2 billion) in 2008.
Consumer spending on museum and heritage admissions was $510 million in 2008.
Total spending on works of art, carvings and other decorative ware was $930 million in 2008.
Canada had 2,831 movie-theatre screens in 2006, generating 102.9 million paid theatre admissions.15 Canadian motion picture theatres attracted more movie-goers in 2007. Cinemas, including indoor theatres, drive-ins and film festivals, sold 104.5 million tickets in 2007, a 1.5% increase from the year before.16 Each Canadian made 3.2 visits to the movies on average in 2007.
Alberta residents were the nation’s most avid movie-goers with an average of 4 visits to the movies per person in 2007.
10.7 million Canadian households (90%) subscribed to multi-channel television programming services. 7.7 million subscribed to cable-television and IPTV. 2.6 million subscribed to Direct-toLes écrivains – un aperçu statistique – Observatoire de la culture et des communications du Québec, no 3, mai 2011 14 Hill Strategies – Consumer Spending on Culture in Canada and in 12 metropolitan census areas (2008)- November 2010 15 Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 87F0009X, Service Bulletin: Motion Picture Theatres 2007.
16 Statistics Canada – Catalogue no. 87F0009X, Service Bulletin: Motion Picture Theatres 2007.
Arts and culture organizations 13 770 incorporated non-profit organizations in Canada were involved in the arts and culture in 2003. 17 Compared with other incorporated nonprofit organizations, arts and culture
Received much lower funding from government (28% for arts and culture vs. 49% for all o nonprofits), and Earned much higher revenues from earned sources (50% for arts and culture vs. 35% for o all nonprofits) Only 37% of incorporated arts and culture organizations reported having paid staff, much lower than 46% of all incorporated nonprofit organizations with paid staff.
Arts and culture organizations reported a volunteer complement of 933 000 with almost 200 million hours volunteered.
Canadian volunteers reported 780,000 positions in arts and culture organizations in 2007.
This represents 3.2% of the volunteer positions in all types of volunteer organizations in Canada.18 Cultural Sectors and Industries Performing Arts As the Canadian economy contracted in 2009, total operating revenues for the performing arts industry slowed to $1.3 billion in 2009, down 3.7% from 2008. These revenues were split almost equally between the for-profit and not-for-profit sectors.19 Operating expenses for the industry totalled just under $1.3 billion. Nearly one-third of operating expenses of performing arts companies consisted of salaries, wages and benefits paid to employees. The salaries and wages expense does not include fees paid to contract workers.
The for-profit companies saw their profit margin fall from 13.2% to 7.2% between 2008 and 2009, while the not-for-profit companies decreased from 0.0% to Heritage Sector20 Operating revenues for Canada’s heritage institutions, excluding nature parks and archives, reached $1.23 billion in 2009. Operating revenues for heritage institutions consist 17 Hill Strategies Research, which was based on Statistics Canada’s 2004 National Survey of Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations.
18 Hill Strategies – Volunteers in Arts& culture organizations 2007 – March 2010 19 Statistics Canada, Service Bulletin, Performing Arts 2009 - January 2011 20 Statistics Canada – Catalogue 87F0002XWE, Service Bulletin 2009, March 2011
Book Publishing21 Operating revenues for the book publishing industry in Canada rose by 1.6% reaching $2.19 billion in 2009. This rise in revenues was due to increased sales in Quebec and Ontario.
In Quebec, operating revenues increased by $20.2 million (3.0%) due to greater sales following a similar increase in 2008. Ontario also experienced an increase in revenues with a rise of $26.7 million (2.0%) in various types of publications.
Spending on salaries, wages and benefits accounted for 21.2% of overall expenses for the industry and rose 1.7% in 2009.