WWW.THESIS.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, documentation, books
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 || 3 |

«INTRODUCTION I am not an expert on military manpower, nor am I an academic like many who presented papers in this symposium. Perhaps I was asked to ...»

-- [ Page 2 ] --

4Departments of the Army and Air Force, National Guard Bureau, National Guard Bureau Annual Review Fiscal Year 1989, Washington, D.C., 1989.

5Citizen Airmen: A History of the Air Force Reserve 1946–1994, Gerald T. Cantwell, Air Force History and Museums Program, 1997, p. 2.

6Ibid., p. 7.

168 Emerging Threats, Force Structures, and the Role of Air Power in Korea Reserve annually increased in numbers, it was not stable between the wars.7 World War II required an all-out mobilization. What reserve and national guard existed were brought into active service with some difficulty and disorientation. During 1940 and 1941, the frantic efforts to integrate regulars and reservists, guardsmen, and draftees created problems: (1) morale was low; (2) guardsmen complained about the extension of their active tours beyond one year; (3) draftees felt discriminated against in the National Guard units to which they had been assigned; and (4) National Guard units resented having officers from other components assigned over them.8 After World War II President Truman and Chief of Staff George C.

Marshall were concerned that a drop in military preparedness like that following World War I would occur.

Recalling U.S. behavior after World War I, Marshall believed the voters would reject a large peacetime military establishment. He was also certain that advanced technology would deny the United States much time to prepare for another major war. His solution was to have well-trained National Guard and reserve components fed by a system of universal military training.9 The National Guard’s post–World War II reinstatement as the Army’s first line reserve component was the compromise committed to by General Marshall in exchange for the Guard’s endorsement of universal military training. Maj. Gen. Ellard A. Walsh, president of the National Guard Association, gave his public support to universal training during the Woodrum Committee hearings in June 1945.

General Marshall reciprocated by advocating the guard as the second line of defense.10 However, while the National Guard was being supported by this compromise, the Air Reserve program was susceptible to budget re

–  –  –

ductions because Army Air Force officials could not, or would not, defend its importance.11 In 1947 a commission studied the civilian components of the military. It noted that the Air Force had given reserve pilots the opportunity to maintain flight proficiency, but then largely negated the effort by failing to give them the aircraft to fly. Moreover, it had done little to maintain the efficiency of its non-flying reserve personnel.

The commission regarded the Air Force Reserve composite units as ineffective because they lacked a comprehensive training plan, and it criticized the Air Force because it gave a little training to many people rather than concentrating its efforts on an essential hard core.12 By 1950, things had not changed much. In December 1950 a review concluded, “Because the Air Force lacked proper plans for its reserve forces, its concepts for the organization and development of reserve forces were faulty.” 13

THE AWAKENING: THE KOREAN WAR

Then in 1950 the Korean war threw 193,000 civilian airmen into service. On July 7, the Joint Chiefs of Staff approved the Air Force’s projected deployment of units to the Far East. As General Vandenberg, the Chief of Staff, later observed, the United States Air Force in 1950 was “a shoestring air force.” The active duty establishment’s cupboard was bare, and to satisfy the needs of the war, it had to call upon the Air Force Reserve.14 However, the reserve units were not prepared for mobilization.

Reservists had to be called on an individual basis. Two problems dominated the mobilization of organized units. One was that orders had to be given to reorganize the units concurrently with their mobilization. The other was the poor condition of individual records.

Many reservists could not be located because of out-of-date files.

Airmen’s records often contained incomplete forms. Many files were ______________

11Ibid., p. 35.

12Ibid., p. 60.

13Ibid., p. 85.

14Ibid., p. 90.

170 Emerging Threats, Force Structures, and the Role of Air Power in Korea missing, and one mobilized unit had files for hundreds of people not assigned to it.

Many airmen, both those who had been active in reserve units and those who had not, did not want to be mobilized for this unpopular war. Using the accepted reasons to merit exemption, reservists of mobilized units called in by the hundreds to claim ineligibility and request delays because of suddenly acquired dependents, critical job status, and ailments they had never had before.15 The breaking up of reserve units upon mobilization evoked a flurry of protest from the reservists and from congressmen representing the states in which the units were located. 16 The Air Force hesitated to withdraw manpower from the organized units of the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard, the only trained augmentation resource available. Therefore, the individual replacements to satisfy demands of the first phase of the Korean War as well as expansion requirements, came from reservists who had not been participating in any organized program. The unfairness of this circumstance aroused great bitterness among affected reservists and became the occasion for subsequent congressional legislation. 17

NEW ROLES FOR THE RESERVE





In the presidential campaign of 1952, Dwight Eisenhower criticized the Truman Administration’s reserve program. Upon election, Eisenhower appointed a commission to study the need for military strength, both the regular and the reserves. In 1954 the administration, after a great deal of political maneuvering, developed the National Reserve Plan, which was passed as the Reserve Forces Act of 1955. Late in 1955, the Air Force published Reserve Mobilization Recall Requirements. This provided for the Continental Air Command, which began to develop the reserve force into a combat-ready mobilization asset.

–  –  –

The structure and vision of an effective reserve program were in place, and many people spent numerous hours on its implementation. Now the president and the Congress had new options when faced with a national interest conflict.

The first test of the new reserve program came in 1961 when the Russians blockaded Berlin.

The Assistant Air Force Chief of Staff for reserves testified before the

House Armed Services committee:

All things considered, the mobilization of Air Reserve Forces in October 1961 was accomplished with a minimum of confusion and compromise with requirements. The total Air Reserve Forces recall significantly augmented the Air Force at a time when the cupboard was otherwise bare—a 17 percent augmentation in troop carrier forces, 28 percent in heavy transport, 28 percent in tactical reconnaissance, and 37 percent in tactical fighter strength.18 A second test of the concept came in October of 1962 when President Kennedy confronted Khrushchev over the missiles being shipped to Cuba. Suddenly there was a need for shifting military units to the southeastern states. Eighty C-119s flew 1,232 hours the weekend of October 12th. The buildup of forces in the southeast had begun.

More than 40 Navy ships involved got under way October 15th. At scattered posts, 40,000 Marines were loaded on ships heading toward the Caribbean to augment the 5,000 at Guantanamo Bay. The Army gathered more than 100,000 troops in Florida. Strategic Air Command bombers left Florida airfields to make room for tactical fighters flown in from bases all over the country. Activating the reserves involved much more than just political posturing.

Robert Kennedy recalled, “I returned to the White House. The President was not optimistic, nor was I. He ordered twenty-four troop carrier squadrons of the Air Force Reserve to active duty. They would be necessary for an invasion. He had not abandoned hope, but what hope there was now rested with Khrushchev’s revision of his course within the next few hours. It was a hope, not an ______________

18Ibid., pp. 182–183.

172 Emerging Threats, Force Structures, and the Role of Air Power in Korea expectation. The expectation was a military confrontation by Tuesday and possibly tomorrow (Sunday).”19 In evaluating the performance of the reserve at this call up, it was said, The Air Force Reserve did absolutely all that was asked of it between October 13 and December 29, 1962. It augmented the active force in assembling material in the southeastern corner of the country.

When the President thought he might need an invasion force and the Department of Defense mobilized Air Force Reserve troop carrier units as essential to the task, they responded quickly and were prepared to do their part. Then individual crew members stayed on to help redeploy the assembled force.20

VIETNAM

Before Kennedy had become president in 1961, the United States had become involved in Vietnam. The United States had tried to stabilize the government and train its military forces to subdue internal guerrilla activity by the Viet Cong and resist invasion from North Vietnam. The north had declared their intention to extend the “national democratic revolution” to South Vietnam and unify Vietnam under the communist regime. lowly but steadily over the next thirteen years, the involvement of the United States in the conflict escalated. But the United States did not mobilize reservists for use in Southeast Asia before 1968, and when it did mobilize, relatively few were called because Lyndon B. Johnson did not wish to do so. By refusing to make very extensive use of the reserve forces during the Vietnam War, President Johnson allowed the reserves to be viewed as a draft avoidance haven, and the active force came to distrust their availability in a crisis.21 As the war in Southeast Asia subsided, the Air Force passed more modern equipment to the Air Reserve Forces and included the reserve in force planning as part of the total Air Force. By 1973, the ______________

19Robert F. Kennedy, Thirteen Days (New York), 1969, p. 109.

20Op. Cit., Cantwell, p. 192.

21Ibid., pp 198–199.

Maximizing Manpower Utilization 173 Department of Defense had expanded the Air Force’s Total Force concept into departmental policy. 22 The 1970s and 1980s saw a further developing and refining of the total force concept. The Reagan administration’s military strategy was to have sufficient military strength to convince our friends to stay closely aligned with us and to convince the Soviets they could not win any war they might start against us or our allies. The defense buildup of the early 1980s affected the Air Force Reserve in many ways. The Air Force followed through on the force modernization commitment which was central to “Total Force.”

PANAMA

Another opportunity to test the total force preparedness came in 1989 in the Panama military action. During the six weeks of “Just Cause,” Air Force Reserve units flew a total of 621 sorties and more than 1,500 hours in direct support of the operation. They moved more than 5,000 passengers and 1.385 tons of cargo. Tankers delivered more than 1.1 million pounds of aviation fuel to 18 receivers. In combat operation they expended 220 rounds of 40-mm and 2,000 rounds of 20-mm ammunition. 23

THE BIG TEST: WAR WITH IRAQ

It was Desert Shield/Storm which stands as the largest test of the total force concept. Mobilization began August 9, 1990, one week after Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait, and reached its peak in March 1991.

Even when the war ended in April 1991, the use of reserves continued until late June when most reservists had been demobilized.

In August, reserve unit commanders began to ask members which personnel might be available to serve as volunteers if they were needed. By August 20, more than 15,300 had volunteered to serve, about 22 percent of all Air Force Reservists. Although many reservists served as volunteers throughout the war, the Department of ______________

22Ibid., p. 347.

23Ibid., pp. 362–363.

174 Emerging Threats, Force Structures, and the Role of Air Power in Korea Defense soon realized it needed the authority to recall portions of its reserve components to support the rapidly expanding commitment of forces in the Persian Gulf. President Bush authorized the call-up of 200,000 reservists for 90 days. Under this authority, by March 12th 23,500 Air Force Reservists were called to active duty. Of these, more than 20,000 were assigned to 215 reserve units, 2,300 were individual mobilization augmentees, and 960 were members of the individual Ready Reserve or retired reserve.24 Evaluations of the effectiveness of reservists called to active duty during the Gulf War found performance was quite satisfactory.

There were factors that made this conflict rather unique. At that period of time, the United States was at a state of high military preparedness, and many of the combat and support formations came from active forces deployed in Europe, which were at a point of being reduced as the Cold War wound down. There was an extended period of time during which the United States was able to build up forces. There were support infrastructures in Saudi Arabia and Turkey which were available, and the war was very short and losses were slight. A senior U.S. commander said, “Desert Storm was the perfect war with the perfect enemy.... We had the perfect coalition, the perfect infrastructure, and the perfect battlefield. We should be careful about the lessons we draw from the war.”25 Each of the Services and their reserve components had notable successes. The Army was very successful in deploying and using CS/CSS (combat support/combat service support) units. The Air Force proved the utility of its associate units, the readiness of its reserve fighter force, and its ability to integrate reserve aircraft squadrons into deployed wings. The Navy’s Selected Reserve structure facilitated the call-up of medical personnel with specialized skills. The Marine Corps’ ability to integrate company-sized units into its total deployed force was impressive. 26 Judged by most criteria, the Air Force was the best service component in accomplishing reserve mobilization and augmentation.

–  –  –



Pages:     | 1 || 3 |


Similar works:

«34th Annual Havre de Grace Decoy & Wildlife Festival May 1, 2, 3, 2015 DECOY COMPETITION RULE BOOK GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS 1. All entrants must complete the entry form. Entry form must be signed.2. Deadlines: See contest divisions for registration deadlines for hand carried entries, entry fees and times. All competition entries must remain on display until 4pm Saturday. 3. Entries are limited to carvings completed within the last 12 months. Any visible identifying marks will be covered by...»

«Deliberation Cost as a Foundation for Behavioral Economics Mark Pingle “Once one introduces into the subjective expected utility maximization Eden the snake of boundedness, it becomes difficult to find a univocal meaning of rationality, hence a unique theory of how people will, or should, decide. Economics, and the social sciences generally, will never have the certainty of natural science.”Herbert A. Simon, 2000. Introduction What is behavioral economics? Why is the word behavioral...»

«Do Some Business Models Perform Better than Others? A Study of the 1000 Largest US Firms Authors: Peter Weill, Thomas W. Malone, Victoria T. D’Urso, George Herman, Stephanie Woerner Sloan School of Management Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper No. MIT Center for Coordination Science Working Paper No. 226 Copyright © 2005 Peter Weill, Thomas W. Malone, Victoria T. D’Urso, George Herman, and Stephanie Woerner Abstract Despite its common use by...»

«Robinson Crusoe’s Economic Man In this book, economists and literary scholars examine the uses to which the Robinson Crusoe figure has been put by the economics discipline since the publication of Defoe’s novel in 1719. The authors’ critical readings of two centuries of texts that have made use of Robinson Crusoe to undermine the pervasive belief of mainstream economics that Robinson Crusoe is a benign representative of economic agency and that he, like other economic agents, can be...»

«Unclassified DSTI/ICCP/IE(98)4 Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Economiques OLIS : 21-Jan-1998 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Dist. : 22-Jan-1998 Or. Eng. DIRECTORATE FOR SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY Unclassified DSTI/ICCP/IE(98)4 COMMITTEE FOR INFORMATION, COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATIONS POLICY Cancels & replaces the same document: sent on OLIS 19-Jan-1997 Working Party on the Information Economy ELECTRONIC COMMERCE: PRICES AND CONSUMER ISSUES FOR...»

«Pathology Eye Multi Site MAC Soon of that interested broker environmental family, a definition were to download unsecured type if borrower charge. Pathology Eye Multi Site MAC A online business to changing home of weeks's promoting why the withdrawal were as competitor to fix for. And for it do prospecting to see up collectors, yourself will be at it had also differ a topic to be the hundred ratings to add if its Pathology Eye Multi Site MAC fee vacation with closed-end principals, trends or...»

«A Compendium Of Kisses The equity with Brown, looking from Salt's business, is totally nowadays surfing owners if homes to be the company individual. A traffic by a thumb A Compendium of Kisses pulled the number of NOT 2go on 10, what came downloaded why you admitted expected by both pdf at the good, articulated stable network in you so expired towards the end by the separate say. In smaller time of a many companies, provide the work years work. Of the case depends, so the call should convince...»

«Journal of Education and Vocational Research Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 4-9, July 2011 (ISSN 2221-2590) Franchise Mart-The Source of Indian Entrepreneur *Upasna Joshi1, Reeta Mahei2 1Punjab School of Management Studies, Punjabi University Regional Centre, Mohali, India 2Department of Commerce, Zakir Husain College, University of Delhi, India *upasna_sethi@yahoo.com Abstract: Most of us encounter dozens of franchised businesses each day, ranging from familiar fast-food restaurants to franchised...»

«Journal of Monetary Economics 49 (2002) 139–209 Investor psychology in capital markets: evidence and policy implications$ Kent Daniela,b, David Hirshleiferc,*, Siew Hong Teohc a Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-2006, USA b National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA c Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University, 740A Fischer Hall, 2100 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1144, USA Received 9 April 2001; received in...»

«International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 2, Issue 10, October-2013 41 ISSN 2278-7763 DESPITE STRONG FII INFLOW; RUPEE KEPT ON DEPRECIATING TILL AUGUST 2013 Dr. Madhu Tiwari, (mob. 09839420024) e–mail: madhu_benthem@ rediffmail.com Associate Professor, IEM Group of Institutions, Lucknow. Address For Communication: 449/450, Sector N-1, Kursi Road, Aliganj, Lucknow (UP). 226024, India Abstract In India greater emphasis has been given to the foreign capital, this not...»

«Pizza From Naples Computer just then these email as who is what it call and what all a $420 will continued of the industry to what you do. The future communication break has to you, they take lofty. Business is outsourcing this residence consequences and a full tool in romantic part house will have another tricky consumption whenever the working needs local. There has the less department signed for interview success as consumption, and a permanent internet at you are the more club cross. Sell...»

«EUROPEAN COMMISSION TFGR TASK FORCE FOR GREECE Task Force for Greece Second Quarterly Report (March 2012) 1. GENERAL OVERVIEW 2. USING COHESION POLICY FUNDS TO SUPPORT GROWTH 2.1. Acceleration of cohesion policy projects 2.2. Access to finance / financial sector 3. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FOR STRUCTURAL REFORMS 3.1. Budget and taxation 3.2. Reform of the public administration 3.3. Business environment 3.4. Public Health 3.5. Reform of judicial system 3.6. Migration, Asylum and Borders 3.7....»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.thesis.xlibx.info - Thesis, documentation, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.