FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, documentation, books

Pages:   || 2 |

«Linking Strategic Planning and Management Manpower Planning by Laurence J. Stybel A corporate strategic plan is merely an expensive report until it ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --


Vol. 25, No. 1, FaU 1982

Copyright © 1982, The Regents of the University of Califomia

Linking Strategic Planning

and Management

Manpower Planning

by Laurence J. Stybel

A corporate strategic plan is merely an expensive report until

it is put in the hands of a manager who can execute it. A

pairing ofMaccohy's management classification scheme and

a product-life-cycle concept yields a model that can match

strategic-business-unit operational requirements and the leader most likely to succeed.

A well-developed strategic plan is merely an expensive report. It becomes a viable tool when it is placed in the hands of a manager competent to execute the plan. While the link between corporate strategic planning and management manpower planning seems obvious, a recent Business Week article suggests that companies are only now seriously trying to develop formal ties between the two systems. ^ The purpose of this article is to outline a conceptual model which can be used by companies in the high-technology sector to achieve this type of linkage.

Management manpower planning refers to the identification of current and future job requirements, assessment of intemal humanresource capability in relation to those requirements, and institutionalization of management development/management succession framework.

Maccoby's Scheme In his book. The Gamesman, Harvard University researcher Michael Maccoby provides a useful framework for the high-technology sector. ^ The material was based on a series of interviews with 250 hightechnology managers who worked for two of the industry's major firms. Maccoby's research format involved extensive interviews with


these managers, including psychological assessments. In addition, the research team interviewed colleagues, superiors, subordinates, and spouses. This methodology allowed Maccoby to obtain more in-depth material than most high-technology companies could feasibly expect to collect on their own people.

According to Maccoby, high-technology managers can be classified as "types." Each personality type represents an ideal and most managers exhibit varying degrees of personality combinations.

Nevertheless, Maccoby argues that his classification represents a well-defined scheme, capable of differentiating managers. His four types are Craftsmen, Jungle Fighters, Company Men, and Gamesmen.

Craftsmen—They are technically proficient individuals who enjoy the process of creation or innovation. They want to "build the best" and are perfectionists. Craftsmen in research and development are the foundation for survival in the high-technology sector since they create future products. Nevertheless, they tend to make relatively poor senior management material. Their desire for perfection results in a tendency towards inaction when business requirements demand quick reaction time. While they have a valued depth of knowledge, they fail to develop the conceptual breadth necessary to plan and control different functions with sometimes confiicting goals.

Jungle Fighters—The goal of Jungle Fighters is to achieve personal power and to be admired by others as superior. They also derive satisfaction in being feared. There are two types of Jungle Fighters. "Lions" are courageous, charismatic managers who lead by example. They are willing to take major risks and will be persistent in the face of obstacles. While they are highly effective in terms of developing empires where none had existed, they are poor organization builders. The development of an organization requires a willingness to share power, something which Lions are reluctant to do.

They tend to staff their organizations with "Yes Men" and to stifie truly independent thinking. "Foxes" are another breed of Jungle Fighter. They lack the Lion's charisma, although they also seek to dominate their environment. Foxes achieve their goals through manipulation of others, secrecy, and betrayal. Given the highly interdependent nature of the high-technology industry. Foxes seldom achieve true organizational power. They do, however, manage to instigate minor and major internal political crises.

Craftsmen seldom trust Jungle Fighters, although they do form useful short-term political alliances with them. Jungle Fighters vdll allow Craftsmen to become prima donnas within their technical area of expertise if they obey Jungle Fighters in all other areas.

50 LAURENCE J. STYBEL Company Men—Most of the 250 managers studied by Maccoby were classified as Company Men. Such people have the goal of being an integral part of a powerful, protective organization.

Company Men are good team members and will take the necessary time to create a viable organizational structure. They can be trusted to follow the corporate game plan according to the rules which have been established. Company Men enjoy implementing formal management systems and keeping the people on their team happy.

They are, however, chronic worriers who are afraid to fail. Highrisk situations tend to scare them. They would rather play it safe.

Because of this, relations between Company Men and Craftsmen pushing innovation tend to be strained.

Gamesmen—Maccoby believes the present and future leadership of large organizations rests with Gamesmen. Such people view business as a competitive contest, and their personal objective is to be a winner. But it is a different type of winning than that which is defined by Jungle Fighters. Jungle Fighters seek personal glory. Gamesmen want to be superstars on a winning team. Because of their team orientation, Gamesmen are willing to allow for the development of subordinates and to encourage aggressive risk taking. Craftsmen tend to enjoy working for Gamesmen because of their openness to subordinate growth and new ideas.

As mentioned earlier, few managers are stereotyped in terms of only one style. Most will exhibit various combinations, with one style being paramount most of the time and under most circumstances.

Weaknesses of Maccoby's Framework One of the strengths of Maccoby's classification scheme is that it is comprehensive. Few companies have the time or money necessary to conduct such an extensive psychological investigation. But Maccoby's psychological orientation also contains weaknesses which limit the practical utilization of this model.

Maccoby views organizations as complex "psychostructures." Different personality types are required at different levels of the organization, and he believes there is an undescribed "natural selection" process at work which helps to insure that the right personality reaches the right level. Thus, Craftsmen tend to stay in technical or staff areas. Company Men tend to dominate middle management, Gamesmen achieve the highest positions, and Jungle Fighters either dominate their organizations or are shunted aside. There is, in fact, nothing "natural" about this selection process. It was probably preplanned through a management selection system. Selection systems can be formal or informal. Companies that elect to postpone a formalSTRATEGIC AND MANAGEMENT MANPOWER PLANNING 51 ized management manpower planning system are, in effect, opting for an informal management planning system which dictates seniority as the basis for promotion. Seniority is, after all, the least objectionable basis to make promotion decisions. Such an informal system tends to insure the Company Men will achieve the highest levels of power, since they are the ones most likely to have the persistence to maintain ±eir time in grade. The utility industry is a classic example of where this has occurred, and it could happen to certain large, hightechnology companies in time.

A second problem with Maccoby's framework is that he views "psychostructures" as complex hierarchies frozen in time. Given the rapidly changing nature of business conditions in the high-technology sector, this picture is unrealistic. Such organizations are managerially dynamic systems with changing requirements over time. This idea is best illustrated by an overview of strategic planning and the role of the product life cycle (PLC) as a conceptual tool in strategic planning.

Strategic Planning and the PLC Bruce Henderson describes strategic planning as the process of relating the firm to its competitors in terms of a competitive system in equilibrium. The plan should include a means of upsetting the competitive equilibrium and reestablishing it again on a more favorable basis. It is a dynamic framework which changes through time. ^ Under strategic planning, products or strategic business units (SBUs) are identified in terms of market share and growth potential. Long-range capital allocations and short-term operational goals are based on individual PLCs.

The PLC is a well-known tool used by marketers and strategic planners to identify the relation of product to marketplace and what must be done to maintain or destabilize market equilibrium. According to Harvard professor Theodore Levitt, there are four stages of the PLC: development, growth, maturity, and decline.'^ Market Development—During this phase, a product has been brought to the market before there is a proven demand for it, and often before it has been fully proven technically. A demand for the product must be created.

Most new products never go beyond the market-development phase. Sometimes this is because the company fails to provide the necessary capital resources; sometimes it is because the SBU manager lacks the persistence necessary to keep subordinates and superiors motivated in the face of initial obstacles.

Growth—The usual characteristic of a successful new product is a 52 LAURENCE J. STYBEL gradual rise in its sales curve during the market-development phase.

At some point in this rise, there is a marked increase in customer demand and sales take off. During the growth phase, potential competitors introduce copies of the product or make functional design improvement over the existing product.

This highly competitive phase requires the development of an innovative management team, capable of expanding the sales force and distribution system, increasing manufacturing capacity, and developing product innovations. It is important that the SBU manager be someone capable of quickly altering the operational game plan in light of new competitive developments.

Maturity—During this phase, market share remains essentially stable, and sales growth is on par with the increase of the existing customer population. The strategic focus during this period tends to be on harvesting profits and protecting the product against competition. These objectives are usually achieved by holding costs of production down. It is particularly important during this phase to have strong financial control systems.

Decline—During this phase, market share begins to shrink due to oversaturation of the product. As demand declines, there is an endemic overcapacity. Production becomes concentrated in the hands of fewer competitors as profit margins are depressed.

In the absence of a likelihood of moving the product out of decline through product innovation or identification of new market segments, it will be necessary to find a buyer for the product or to begin shrinking production and sales capacity. During this phase, it is necessary that the SBU manager not be afraid to make necessary and sometimes painful business decisions. The manager will have to think and act boldly.

Matching Managers and Strategies Integrating Maccoby's managerial classification scheme with a product-life-cycle perspective offers high-technology firms a model for placing SBU managers in areas where the business requirements are most likely to focus on management personality strengths. Because I the PLC not only describes business requirements at one phase but also predicts managerial requirements when the product enters the next phase, the model can include the desired managerial type to become second-in-command of the SBU. In this way, a formal management manpower planning system can insure smooth management continuity as the SBU moves from one phase of the PLC to the next.

Market Development—This phase typically requires an SBU


manager capable of brute persistence in the face of initial technical and market obstacles. The person should be eager to be on the forefront of a high-risk operation. A charismatic and persuasive leader is well suited to this role. Given the importance of the engineering function at this phase of the PLC, a Lion-type Jungle Fighter who is also a Craftsman is probably ideally suited for this role.

Henry Ford is a classic example of this type of individual. Failing that, a Lion-type Jungle Fighter with sound back-up by Craftsmen would be appropriate.

Growth—Lions, however, are not particularly effective in terms of developing the integrated technical/managerial team needed in the growth phase. Gamesmen are probably best suited to this role. They will have the necessary orientation to develop an organization which can respond rapidly to a rapidly changing competitive environment.

They have the additional advantage of being able to work well with Craftsmen.

Maturity—During the maturity phase, emphasis is placed on squeezing the greatest efficiency out of operations. Corporate Men are best suited for the task because they have the required persistence to effectively carry out a long-term game plan which focuses on control through formal administrative systems. Their inherent desire for stability corresponds well with the business requirements of a mature market. As Corporate Men do not relate well with Craftsmen, it is assumed that the business strategy employed during the maturity phase would be to focus on increasing efficiency of existing operations, rather than on technological innovations.

Pages:   || 2 |

Similar works:

«Principles of Emergence A Generic Framework of Firms as Agent-Based Complex Adaptive Systems Meike Tilebein Universität Stuttgart Institute of Business Administration Department IV Keplerstr. 17 D-70174 Stuttgart, Germany Phone: +49-(0)711-6858 3466 Fax: +49-(0)711-6958 3191 Email: meike.tilebein@bwi.uni-stuttgart.de Abstract The concept of emergence is closely related to complexity theory. While this agentbased approach is on its way of becoming a new paradigm in management science, the...»

«Chapter Eight MAXIMIZING MANPOWER UTILIZATION: CIVILMILITARY COOPERATION PROSPECTS IN KOREA Spencer Kim INTRODUCTION I am not an expert on military manpower, nor am I an academic like many who presented papers in this symposium. Perhaps I was asked to make a presentation from my point of view as a businessman with quite a number of years of experience and some knowledge acquired through doing things wrong. And while the proceedings of this conference will be published as a learned symposium, my...»

«CasaXPS Manual 2.3.15 Rev 1.2 Copyright © 2009 Casa Software Ltd CasaXPS Manual 2.3.15 Rev 1.2 Copyright © 2009 Casa Software Ltd CasaXPS Manual 2.3.15 CasaXPS Processing Software Casa Software Ltd.NO WARRANTY Casa Software Ltd. does its best to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the Software and Related Documentation. Nevertheless, the Software and Related Documentation may contain errors that may affect its performance to a greater or lesser degree. Therefore no representation is made...»

«Compound Interest Short Cut pdf Download Prady Sharma Compound Interest is the next part of Simple Interest. Compound Interest and Simple Interest are very important in exam point of view and in daily life as well. We sometimes hear people saying especially in financial terms about compound interest and simple interest Bankers Guide WWW.IBPSRESULTCUTOFF.iN [Type the phone number] [Type the fax number] 08-Jan-16 Compound Interest: 10 Important Shortcuts & Tricks explained with Examples Majority...»

«Vol. #2 November, 2011 KEYS TO DISCOVERING YOUR DESTINY I have a good friend who was a Hollywood star in years past. Though extremely gifted and experienced in many areas, she tearfully expressed one day, “I feel so lost.like I’ve missed my chance at doing something significant.” Her problem surfaced when she watched other people’s successes and remarked, “Oh, I could do that.” or “I have done that before.” Yes, she could, and she did. But should she now? I see this same inner...»

«Gutenberg School of Management and Economics & Research Unit “Interdisciplinary Public Policy” Discussion Paper Series Social Network Analysis and Community Detection by Decomposing a Graph into Relaxed Cliques Timo Gschwind, Stefan Irnich, Fabio Furini, Roberto Wolfler Calvo December 11, 2015 Discussion paper number 1520 Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Gutenberg School of Management and Economics Jakob-Welder-Weg 9 55128 Mainz Germany wiwi.uni-mainz.de Contact details: Timo Gschwind...»

«Data Management Regulation 1. Person of Data Controller The personal data of the data subjects are processed by Adecco Kft. (Seat: Váci út 45. G. ép. 7., 1134 Budapest, Hungary; Company registration no: 01-09-071602; Tax no.: 10443314-2-44; hereinafter: Adecco). The Adecco processes the personal data presented by the data subjects on the homepage www.adecco.hu as well as other particulars transferred in another way by such persons. The Adecco is a business company duly registered in...»

«CURRICULUM VITAE Claudio Sapelli Nacionalidad: Uruguayo Dirección Profesional: Instituto de Economía, P. Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile Teléfono: 562-354-4007 Fax: 562-553-6472 Correo Electrónico: csapelli@uc.cl Estudios Académicos Ph.d. (Economía), Universidad de Chicago, 1985 M.A. (Economía), Universidad de Chicago, 1982 Economista, Universidad de la República Oriental del Uruguay, 1980. Licenciado en Economía, Universidad de la República...»

«Offshore Outsourcing and Migrations The South-Eastern and Central-Eastern European Case Devi Sacchetto1 In the last fifteen years the European and Mediterranean area has been marked by a series of changes concerning in particular the mobility of persons, capitals and commodities. These changes appear to be associated with a strong asymmetry of opportunities. Wars, migrations, direct investments abroad and the enlargement of the EU point to new scenarios with social actors such as migrants,...»

«Imbens/Wooldridge, Lecture Notes 10, Summer ’07 What’s New in Econometrics? NBER, Summer 2007 Lecture 10, Tuesday, July 31st, 4.30-5.30 pm Difference-in-Differences Estimation These notes provide an overview of standard difference-in-differences methods that have been used to study numerous policy questions. We consider some recent advances in Hansen (2007a,b) on issues of inference, focusing on what can be learned with various group/time period dimensions and serial independence in...»

«STATEMENT OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SUPPLEMENT NORTHERN FUNDS SUPPLEMENT DATED MAY 31, 2016 TO STATEMENT OF INFORMATION (“SAI”) DATED JULY 31, 2015 Effective May 23, 2016, Brian W. Hart is no longer a portfolio manager of the Short-Intermediate U.S. Government Fund and the U.S. Government Fund. All references to Mr. Hart in the SAI are hereby deleted. Michael R. Chico will continue to manage the Short-Intermediate U.S. Government Fund and the U.S. Government Fund. MONEY MARKET FUNDS...»

«UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY Office of the Treasurer Overnight and Short Term Investment Policy University of Kentucky University of Kentucky Research Foundation University of Kentucky Athletic Association The Fund for Advancement of Education and Research in the UK Medical Center University of Kentucky Business Partnership Foundation, Inc. University of Kentucky Mining Engineering Foundation, Inc. University of Kentucky Equine Research Foundation, Inc. University of Kentucky Humanities Foundation,...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.thesis.xlibx.info - Thesis, documentation, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.