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Paris Declaration, http://ec.europa.eu/education/news/2015/documents/citizenship-educationdeclaration_en.pdf.

 A strengthened framework for policy support and cooperation While Member States are responsible for their own education and training systems, EU policy can support national action and help address common challenges, notably within the Education and Training 2020 cooperation framework25. The Commission will propose a draft Council Recommendation to promote effective policies and best practices, underpinned by funding opportunities, thus allowing for a more coordinated approach throughout the EU.

This Recommendation will give concrete guidance to policy-makers, helping them to take the steps needed to achieve the national and local objectives of the Paris Declaration. Experience with frameworks such as the early school leaving framework26 has shown that this approach yields rapid and effective results.

 Making the most of EU funding Erasmus+ funds transnational cooperation projects and policy support27. In 2014 alone, it provided financing for over 1700 projects across the education, training, youth and sport sectors. As of 2016, priority is given to actions and projects that foster inclusion and promote fundamental values, echoing the objectives of the Paris Declaration. As a result, EUR 400 million is now available to develop new policies and projects supporting these priorities, and an additional EUR 13 million will be spent on helping to spread and scale up grassroots initiatives.

 Supporting educators and educational institutions Schools have a key role in fostering inclusion and, as core parts of communities, work closely with parents and local associations. Regular contacts with representatives of civil society and role models can make a difference in motivating young people and preventing them from drifting to the margins of society. These kinds of networks already exist in some Member States28, and should be scaled up at European level to reach a critical mass of young people.

The Commission will therefore establish a network to enable local stakeholders to invite people from various backgrounds, such as entrepreneurs, artists, sportspersons, as well as formerly radicalised people when appropriate, to visit schools, youth initiatives, sport clubs and prisons to share their experiences.29 Teachers are particularly important. They are well placed to detect early signs of radicalisation in pupils and help address them. More generally, teachers should be equipped to address diversity in the classroom and pass on common values to pupils. Since teachers in many Member States are faced with similar challenges, peer learning and direct exchanges at EU level can help to identify best practices. The EU will continue supporting such exchanges through eTwinning, an internet platform connecting teachers and classrooms across Europe30 Council Conclusions of 12 May 2009 on a Strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020), https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/educ/107622.pdf.

Council Recommendation of 28 June 2011 on policies to reduce early school leaving.

At least 28% and 4.2% of the total budget respectively, i.e, EUR 14,7 billion for the 2014-2020 period.

For example the the Réserve Citoyenne in France, http://www.lareservecitoyenne.fr/.

This network, funded under Erasmus + will be launched as a pilot project with a focus on violent radicalisation in deprived areas in some Member States.

Currently reaching 300,000 teachers and totalling 406 projects, eTwinning is the biggest teacher network in the world and already offers a wide array of courses in all fields of education, including on citizenship and intercultural dialogue.

and within the RAN working group on education. Finally, the Commission will work closely with the Council of Europe and UNESCO to better implement existing tools designed to support teachers31.

Students and staff of higher education institutions also play an important role. The Commission encourages higher education institutions to engage with local communities and to recognise students' efforts to do so, for instance by granting students credits for volunteering or other learning modules.

Key actions:

 Proposing a Council Recommendation to enhance social inclusion and promote Europe's fundamental values through education and non-formal learning.

 Making available through Erasmus+ more than EUR 400 million in 2016 to transnational partnerships to develop innovative policy approaches and practices at grass-root level, prioritising social inclusion, the promotion of common values and intercultural understanding. Erasmus+ will scale up actions developed at grass-root level with a dedicated envelope of EUR 13 million in 2016.

 Establishing a network to facilitate direct contacts with positive role models in schools, youth, sport clubs and prisons.

 Promoting the award of student credits for volunteering, and the development of curricula that combine academic content with civic engagement through Erasmus+.

5. Promoting inclusive, open and resilient societies and reaching out to young people The EU stands for societies in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between men and women prevail32. Combatting social exclusion and discrimination, and promoting social justice and protection are objectives of the EU in their own right33. Such societies should prove to be more resilient to the threats of violent extremism.

Countering discrimination, including on the grounds of religion or belief, race or ethnic origin, tackling hatred and stigmatisation of communities, and combating hate crime and serious forms of hate speech are all key elements in this respect. Member States need to enforce EU legislation on combating racism and xenophobia and discrimination on grounds of religion or belief and agreement is now needed on the Commission proposal to complete the anti-discrimination framework on the grounds of inter alia religion34. Intercultural and interfaith dialogue between communities is of particular importance. Community leaders and civil society need to be supported to foster exchanges and joint projects between different The Competence Framework on Democratic Citizenship to be launched in April and the "Teaching controversial issues" programme as well as the UNESCO pedagogical guidance on Global Citizenship Education.

Article 2 TEU.

Article 3 TEU.

Proposal for a Council Directive on implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation, COM (2008) 426 final.

communities. The Commission has allocated EUR 4.5 million in 2016 to projects to create better understanding between communities, including religious communities, to prevent and combat racism and xenophobia through interreligious and intercultural activities.

EU social and employment policies seek to eradicate poverty and promote inclusive labour markets and societies. One of the best ways to tackle social exclusion is through employment.

One of the challenges faced by the Member States is to reduce the numbers of youth not in Employment, Education or Training (NEETs). The EU can help with the policy guidance delivered through instruments, such as the Youth Guarantee and the Youth Employment Initiative, the Recommendation on long term unemployed and the recently adopted Skills Agenda35. In addition, the Directive 2000/78 on equal treatment in employment and education36 helps to fight discrimination, including through raising awareness about discrimination among stakeholders, civil society and social partners.

Moreover, the European Social Fund supports national schemes and small local projects.

From 2014 to 2020, EUR 25.6 billion will go directly towards fostering the social inclusion of disadvantaged groups, for instance through tailor-made training programmes and social support schemes. In addition, more than EUR 8 billion will be used to help schools address early school leaving and increase access to quality education for all, for instance through adapting school curricula, teacher education courses and individual support to disadvantaged learners. The European Social Fund is expected to reach 2.5 million disadvantaged people, including 1.3 million who are unemployed or inactive. In addition, the Programme for Employment and Social Innovation (EaSI) can fund innovative projects on the ground, fostering social inclusion.

Youth work powerfully reaches out to young people, especially the disadvantaged, and helps them become engaged citizens, avoiding marginalisation and vulnerability to extremist views.

Engagement of youth workers is important as part of a broader collaboration with all relevant actors, including with educational institutions, community organisations, employers and those closest to young people: their families and friends. To support this, the Commission will develop a specific toolkit of best practices in close cooperation with the Member States for youth workers and educators. This will provide examples of how to help young people increase their democratic resilience, become media literate and think critically, on how to teach young people to resolve conflicts and respect the views of others and on how to spot and react to early signs of radicalisation. To bolster the impact of youth work on the ground, the Commission will also strengthen the European Voluntary Service by increasing its budget 37 and give priority to projects promoting fundamental values and reaching out to disadvantaged people and communities.

Key actions:

 Continue to work with the European Parliament and the Council towards the adoption of the anti-discrimination directive.

A New Skills Agenda for Europe: Working together to strengthen human capital, employability and competitiveness (COM(2016) 381).

Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation.

The budget (EUR 65 million in 2016) is scheduled to increase by 15% annually between 2017 and 2020.

 Fostering social inclusion of disadvantaged groups through policy measures and the European Social Fund and Programme for Employment and Social Innovation.

 Enhancing support to youth workers and organisations, particularly by developing a toolkit.

 Strengthening the European Voluntary Service.

6. The security dimension of addressing radicalisation

Preventing and countering radicalisation has a strong security dimension, as highlighted in the recent Communication "Delivering on the European Agenda on Security to fight against terrorism and pave the way towards an effective and genuine Security Union". Member States can take security measures to prevent young people from leaving to conflict zones to join terrorist groups. These include measures such as travel prohibitions, the criminalisation of traveling to a third country for terrorist purposes, but also measures through which families and friends can call upon the help of public authorities such as hotlines. Furthermore, extremist preachers and those disseminating terrorist propaganda or those recruiting vulnerable individuals may face criminal charges. Member States may issue travel bans to prevent extremist preachers from entering the EU, and may intervene against the dissemination of extremist messages through administrative measures. Such measures are the necessary complement to measures enhancing resilience against radicalisation.

Information sharing is key in this respect. The EU’s border management, migration and security cooperation frameworks and information tools need to be joined up, strengthened and fully used38 to effectively prevent EU citizens from travelling to conflict zones for terrorist purposes and detecting those that pose a risk upon their return. These and other frameworks and tools need to be used to exchange information of those suspected of radicalisation in order to facilitate the work of the relevant authorities across borders in taking the appropriate measures against persons representing a high security risk.

The Schengen Information System (SIS) is of particular importance in this regard. An alert in SIS can generate different actions depending on the assessment and intention of the Member State inserting it, i.e. a person can be arrested, placed under protection or subject of a discreet or specific check. SIS has also been useful to prevent terrorist travel and to trace the travel routes of persons suspected for terrorism. In the context of the foreign terrorist fighters, the Commission encouraged Member States to signal that the alert concerns a "terrorism related activity" without limiting it to foreign terrorist fighters or criminal activities as such. It can thus be used to include alerts on those suspected of being radicalised towards committing acts of terrorism.

Furthermore, Member States should step up their efforts to ensure that appropriate information is exchanged and shared with Europol. The recently created European Counterterrorism Centre (ECTC) at Europol aims to become a central information hub in the fight against terrorism in the EU, including as regards radicalisation risks.

In addition, the Europol Information System (EIS) is positioned to serve as a central repository of law enforcement data, including the consolidated list of all known or suspected See Commission Communication of 6 April on Stronger and Smarter Information Systems for Borders and Security, COM (2016) 205.

Foreign Terrorism Fighters. Member States still need to step up their efforts significantly to provide the necessary data on Foreign Terrorist Fighters to Europol.

Key actions:

 The Commission will by end 2016, propose to revise the Schengen Information System to further improve its added value for law enforcement and counter-terrorism purposes.

 Member States should proactively exchange all relevant information with other Member States, and Europol where appropriate, on released convicts suspected of radicalisation or known radical individuals, in order to ensure close monitoring of those representing a high risk.

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