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Management evaluates agreements with customers in accordance with the provision of the revenue recognition topic that addresses multiple-deliverable revenue arrangements. The multiple-deliverable arrangements entered into consist of bundled managed care which included various units of accounting such as Network Solutions, and Patient Management which includes claims administration. Such elements are considered separate units of accounting due to each element having value to the customer on a stand-alone basis. The selling price for each unit of accounting is determined using contract price and management estimates. When the Company’s customers purchase several products, the pricing of the products sold is generally the same as if the product were sold on an individual basis. Revenue is recognized as the work is performed in accordance with our customer contracts. Based upon the nature of the Company’s products, bundled managed care elements are generally delivered in the same accounting period. The Company recognizes revenue for patient management claims administration services over the life of the claim. Based upon prior experience in managing claims, the Company estimates the deferral amount from when the claim is received to when the customer contract expires.
Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts: The Company determines its allowance by considering a number of factors, including the length of time trade accounts receivable are past due, the Company’s previous loss history, the customers’ current ability to pay its obligation to the Company, and the condition of the general economy and the industry as a whole. The Company writes off accounts receivable when they become uncollectible.
The Company must make significant management judgments and estimates in determining contractual and bad debt allowances in any accounting period. One significant uncertainty inherent in the Company’s analysis is whether its past experience will be indicative of future periods. Although the Company considers future projections when estimating contractual and bad debt allowances, the Company ultimately makes its decisions based on the best information available to it at that time. Adverse changes in general economic conditions or trends in reimbursement amounts for the Company’s services could affect the Company’s contractual and bad debt allowance estimates, collection of accounts receivable, cash flows, and results of operations. No one customer accounted for 10% or more of accounts receivable at March 31, 2015, and 2016.
Goodwill and Long-Lived Assets: Goodwill arising from business combinations represents the excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of the net assets of the acquired business. Pursuant to ASC 350-10 through ASC 350-30, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets,” goodwill is tested annually for impairment or more frequently if circumstances indicate the potential for impairment. Also, management tests for impairment of its amortizable intangible assets and long-lived assets annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. The Company’s impairment analysis is conducted at a regional level. The measurement of fair value is based on an evaluation of market capitalization and is further tested using a multiple of earnings approach. In projecting the Company’s cash flows, management considers industry growth rates and trends and cost structure changes. Based on the Company’s tests and reviews, no impairment of its goodwill, intangible assets or other long-lived assets existed at March 31, 2016. However, future events or changes in current circumstances could affect the recoverability of the carrying value of goodwill and long-lived assets. Should an asset be deemed impaired, an impairment loss would be recognized to the extent the carrying value of the asset exceeded its estimated fair market value.
Accrual for Self-insurance Costs: The Company accrues for the group medical costs and workers’ compensation costs of its employees based on claims filed and an estimate of claims incurred but not reported as of each balance sheet date. The Company purchases stop loss insurance for large claims. The Company determines its estimated self-insurance reserves based upon historical trends along with outstanding claims information provided by its claims paying agents. However, it is possible that recorded accruals may not be adequate to cover the future payment of claims. Adjustments, if any, to estimated accruals resulting from ultimate claim payments will be reflected in earnings during the periods in which such adjustments are determined. The Company’s self-insured liabilities contain uncertainties because management is required to make assumptions and to apply judgment to estimate the ultimate cost to settle reported claims and claims incurred but not reported at the balance sheet date.
The Company does not believe there is a reasonable likelihood that there will be a material change in the estimates or assumptions used to calculate its self-insured liabilities. However, if actual results are not consistent with these estimates or assumptions, the Company may be exposed to losses or gains that could be material.
Accounting for Income Taxes: The Company records a tax provision for the anticipated tax consequences of the reported results of operations. The provision for income taxes is computed using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the currently enacted tax rates that apply to taxable income in effect for the years in which those tax assets are expected to be realized or settled. The Company records a valuation allowance, if necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that is believed more likely than not to be realized.
The Company recognizes tax benefits from uncertain tax positions only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
Management believes it is more likely than not that forecasted income, including income that may be generated as a result of certain tax planning strategies, together with future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, will be sufficient to fully recover the deferred tax assets. In the event that the Company determines all or part of the net deferred tax assets are not realizable in the future, the Company will make an adjustment to the valuation allowance that would be charged to earnings in the period such determination is made. In addition, the calculation of tax liabilities involves significant judgment in estimating the impact of uncertainties in the application of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and complex tax laws. Resolution of these uncertainties in a manner inconsistent with management’s expectations could have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition and operating results. The significant assumptions and estimates described above are important contributors to our ultimate effective tax rate in each year.
Legal and Other Contingencies: As discussed in Part I, Item 3 of this Form 10-K under the heading “Legal Proceedings” and in Note I, “Contingencies and Legal Proceedings” in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company is subject to various legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business. The Company records a liability when it is probable that a loss has been incurred and the amount is reasonably estimable. There is significant judgment required in both the probability determination and as to whether an exposure can be reasonably estimated. In the opinion of management, there was not at least a reasonable possibility the Company may have incurred a material loss, or a material loss in excess of a recorded accrual, with respect to loss contingencies. However, the outcome of legal proceedings and claims brought against the Company are subject to significant uncertainty.
Share-Based Compensation: The Company accounts for share-based compensation in accordance with the provisions of ASC Topic 718 “Compensation — Stock Compensation”. Under ASC 718, share-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date, based on the calculated fair value of the award, and is recognized as an expense over the employee’s requisite service period (generally the vesting period of the equity grant). For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, the Company recorded share-based compensation expense of $2,192,000. Share-based compensation expense recognized in fiscal 2016 is based on awards ultimately expected to vest; therefore, it has been reduced for estimated forfeitures. ASC Topic 718 requires forfeitures to be estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.
The Company estimates the fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes valuation model. Key input assumptions used to estimate the fair value of stock options include the exercise price of the award, the expected option term, the expected volatility of the Company’s stock over the option’s expected term, the risk-free interest rate over the option’s term, and the Company’s expected annual dividend yield. The Company’s management believes that the valuation technique and the approach utilized to develop the underlying assumptions are appropriate in calculating the fair values of the Company’s stock options granted in fiscal 2016. Estimates of fair value are not intended to predict actual future events or the value ultimately realized by persons who receive equity awards.
We do not believe there is a reasonable likelihood there will be a material change in the future estimates or assumptions we use to determine stock-based compensation expense. However, if actual results are not consistent with our estimates or assumptions, we may be exposed to changes in stock-based compensation expense that could be material.
Software Development Costs: Development costs incurred in the research and development of new software products and enhancements to existing software products for internal use are expensed as incurred until technological feasibility has been established. After technological feasibility is established, any additional external software development costs are capitalized and amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated economic life of the related product, which is typically five years. The Company performs an annual review of the estimated economic life and the recoverability of such capitalized software costs. If a determination is made that capitalized amounts are not recoverable based on the estimated cash flows to be generated from the applicable software, any remaining capitalized amounts are written off. Although the Company believes that its approach to estimates and judgments as described herein is reasonable, actual results could differ and the Company may be exposed to increases or decreases in revenue that could be material.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards On May 28, 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09 regarding ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The standard provides principles for recognizing revenue for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers with the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In July 2015, the FASB approved a one-year delay of the effective date of this new revenue recognition standard. The guidance will now be effective for our fiscal year beginning April 1, 2018. We are currently evaluating the accounting, transition and disclosure requirements of the standard and cannot currently estimate the financial statement impact of adoption.
On November 20, 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes.
ASU 2015-17 alters the presentation of deferred tax items on a classified balance sheet requiring companies to unify previously separated current and noncurrent items and present them as a single noncurrent amount. We have elected to early adopt this standard as of March 31st, 2016 and have retrospectively applied the amendments to all periods presented. As a result we reclassified $7,181,000 of current deferred tax assets to non-current deferred tax assets and netted $7,181,000 non-current deferred tax liabilities against our non-current deferred tax assets as of March 31, 2015.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01 regarding Subtopic 825-10, Financials Instruments — Overall: Recognition and Measurements of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The standard addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. It requires that most equity investments be measured at fair value, with subsequent changes in fair value recognized in net income. The guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017. We are currently evaluating the accounting, transition, and disclosure requirements of the standard and cannot currently estimate the financial statement impact of adoption.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases, which sets out the principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both parties to a contract (i.e. lessees and lessors). The standard requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases. This classification will determine whether the lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than 12 months regardless of their classification.
Leases with a term of 12 months or less will be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases.