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«Brain and Neurons Lai, H, Carino, MA, Singh, NP, Naltrexone blocks RFR-induced DNA double strand breaks in rat brain cells. Wireless Networks ...»

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Introduction: Melatonin has been considered a potent antioxidant that detoxifies a variety of reactive oxygen species in many pathophysiological states of eye. The present study was designed to determine the effects of Wi-Fi exposure on the lens oxidant, antioxidant redox systems, as well as the possible protective effects of melatonin on the lens injury induced by electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two rats were used in the current study and they were randomly divided into four equal groups as follows: First and second groups were cage-control and sham-control rats. Rats in third group were exposed to Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) for duration of 60 min/day for 30 days. As in the third group, the fourth group was treated with melatonin. The one-hour exposure to irradiation in second, third and fourth took place at noon each day. Results: Lipid peroxidation levels in the lens were slightly higher in third (Wi-Fi) group than in cage and sham control groups although their concentrations were significantly (P 0.05) decreased by melatonin supplementation. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was significantly (P 0.05) lower in Wi-Fi group than in cage and sham control groups although GSH-Px (P 0.01) and reduced glutathione (P 0.05) values were

significantly higher in Wi-Fi + melatonin group than in Wi-Fi group. Conclusions:

There are poor oxidative toxic effects of one hour of Wi-Fi exposure on the lens in the animals. However, melatonin supplementation in the lens seems to have protective effects on the oxidant system by modulation of GSH-Px activity.

Pologea-Moraru R, Kovacs E, Iliescu KR, Calota V, Sajin G. The effects of low level microwaves on the fluidity of photoreceptor cell membrane.

Bioelectrochemistry 56(1-2):223-225, 2002.

Due to the extensive use of electromagnetic fields in everyday life, more information is required for the detection of mechanisms of interaction and the possible side effects of electromagnetic radiation on the structure and function of the organism.In Studies that show WiFi and Devices Health Effects this paper, we study the effects of low-power microwaves (2.45 GHz) on the membrane fluidity of rod photoreceptor cells. The retina is expected to be very sensitive to microwave irradiation due to the polar character of the photoreceptor cells [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1273 (1995) 217] as well as to its high water content [Stud. Biophys. 81 (1981) 39].

Yang R, Chen J, Deng Z, Liu X, [Effect of vitamin E on morphological variation of retinal ganglion cells after microwave radiation]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 30(1):31-33, 2001. [Article in Chinese] To determine the morphological variation in the primary cultured pig retinal ganglion cells induced by microwave and the protection of VE can supply some experiment foundation for study of effect of microwave and its protection. Retinal ganglion cells of pig were cultured in vitro and added VE of different concentration, Each group was taken after 30 mW/cm2 microwave intensity radiated for 1 h in shielded room by 2450 MHz continuous wave physiotherapy machine. Immediately after radiation, the morphological variation of cells was observed by optics microscope and transmission electronic microscope. The result showed that a portion of cells congregated, with their axon disappeared after radiation. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are detected swelling by transmission electronic microscope. The results showed that A poptosis cells can be observed. Cells of VE added groups had not obvious changes with optics microscope, but could be found that mitochondria swelling lightly and integrate mitochondria cristae by transmission electronic microscope. The results showed that microwave induced the morphological damage in primary cultured retinal ganglion cells, VE could reduced the damage of retina ganglion cells by microwave in some extent.

Behrens T, Lynge E, Cree I, Sabroe S, Lutz JM, Afonso N, Eriksson M, Guénel P, Merletti F, Morales-Suarez-Varela M, Stengrevics A, Févotte J, Llopis-González A, Gorini G, Sharkova G, Hardell L, Ahrens W.

Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma. Occup Environ Med.67(11):751-759, 2010 Objectives The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries. Methods Incident cases of uveal melanoma and population as well as hospital controls were included and frequency matched by country, 5-year birth cohort and sex. Subjects were asked whether they had worked close to high-voltage electrical transmission installations, computer screens and various electrical machines, or in complex electrical environments.

Measurements of two Scandinavian job-exposure matrices were applied to estimate lifelong cumulative EMF exposure. Unconditional logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex and eye colour were calculated, adjusting for several potential confounders. Results 293 patients with uveal melanoma and 3198 Studies that show WiFi and Devices Health Effects control subjects were interviewed. Women exposed to electrical transmission installations showed elevated risks (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.72 to 19.66). Positive associations with exposure to control rooms were seen among men and women, but most risk increases were restricted to subjects with dark iris colour.

Application of published EMF measurements revealed stronger risk increases among women compared to men. Again, elevated risks were restricted to subjects with dark eye colour. Conclusion Although based on a low prevalence of exposure to potential occupational sources of EMF, our data indicate that exposed dark-eyed women may be at particular risk for uveal melanoma.

Yao K, Wang KJ, Sun ZH, Tan J, Xu W, Zhu LJ, Lu de Q. Low power microwave radiation inhibits the proliferation of rabbit lens epithelial cells by upregulating P27Kip1 expression. Mol Vis. 10:138-143, 2004.

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to examine the effects of low power microwave radiation (10 mW/cm2) on the proliferation of cultured rabbit lens epithelial cells (RLEC). METHODS: Cultured RLEC were exposed to continuous microwave radiation at a frequency of 2,450 MHz and power densities of 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 mW/cm2 for 8 h. Cell morphologic changes were observed under a phasecontrast microscope. Cell viability was measured using the MTT assay and cell cycle analysis was measured using flow cytometry. After exposure to 2.00 mW/cm2 microwave radiation for 4, 6, and 8 h, the expression of cell cycle-regulatory proteins, P21WAF1 and P27Kip1, was examined using western blot analysis. Finally, the levels of P21WAF1 and P27Kip1 mRNA were analyzed by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: After 8 h of radiation treatment, cells treated with 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 mW/cm2 microwave radiation exhibited decreased cell viability, increased cell condensation and an inhibition of DNA synthesis. RLEC showed significant G0/G1 arrest. No obvious changes could be detected in the 0.10 and 0.25 mW/cm2 microwave treatment groups. Protein expression of P27Kip1 was markedly increased after microwave radiation.

However, the mRNA levels were unchanged. On the other hand, there were no detectable differences in P21WAF1 protein expression and mRNA levels between microwave treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that low power microwave radiation higher than 0.50 mW/cm2 can inhibit lens epithelial cell proliferation, and increase the expression of P27Kip1. These effects may account for the decline of lens epithelial proliferation after exposure to microwave radiation.

Kues HA, Monahan JC, D'Anna SA, McLeod DS, Lutty GA, Koslov S, Increased sensitivity of the non-human primate eye to microwave radiation following ophthalmic drug pretreatment. Bioelectromagnetics 13(5):379Previous studies in our laboratory have established that pulsed microwaves at

2.45 GHz and 10 mW/cm2 are associated with production of corneal endothelial Studies that show WiFi and Devices Health Effects lesions and with disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier in the non-human primate eye. In the study reported here we examined ocular damage in monkeys (M. mulatta and M. fascicularis) following topical treatment with one of two ophthalmic drugs (timolol maleate and pilocarpine) that preceded exposure to pulsed microwaves. Anesthetized monkeys were sham exposed or exposed to pulsed, 2.45 GHz microwaves (10 microseconds, 100 pps) at average power densities of 0.2, 1, 5, 10, or 15 mW/cm2 4 h a day for 3 consecutive days (respective SARs were 0.052, 0.26, 1.3, 2.6, and 3.9 W/kg). Immediately before microwave exposure, one or both eyes were treated topically with one drop of 0.5% timolol maleate or of 2% pilocarpine. Following administration of a drug, we observed a significant reduction in the power-density threshold (from 10 to 1 mW/cm2) for induction of corneal endothelial lesions and for increased vascular permeability of the iris. Diagnostic procedures (in vivo specular microscopy and fluorescein iris angiography) were performed following each exposure protocol.

In addition, increased vascular permeability was confirmed with horseradish peroxidase tracer techniques. Although we did not measure intraocular temperatures in experimental animals, the results suggest that a mechanism other than significant heating of the eye is involved. Our data indicate that pulsed microwaves at an average SAR of 0.26 W/kg, if administered after pretreatment with ophthalmic drugs, can produce significant ocular effects in the anesthetized primate.

Kojima M, Hata I, Wake K, Watanabe S, Yamanaka Y, Kamimura Y, Taki M, Sasaki K. Influence of anesthesia on ocular effects and temperature in rabbit eyes exposed to microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics 25(3):228-233, 2004.

To investigate the effect of systemic anesthesia on ocular effects and temperature in rabbit eyes exposed to microwaves, one eye each of 43 male pigmented rabbits (Dutch, 1.8-2.2 kg) was exposed at 2.45 GHz for 60-20 min (300 mW/cm2; 108 W/kg), either under anesthesia (ketamine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg) + xylazine (0.23 mg/kg)) or without anesthesia. Changes in the anterior segment were evaluated by image analysis utilizing a Scheimpflug camera, specular microscopy, and a laser flare cell meter. Temperatures within the eye were measured during microwave exposure by a Fluoroptic thermometer. The exposed eyes showed miosis, conjunctival congestion, corneal edema, and an increase in the light scattering of the anterior shallow cortex in the pupillary area of the lens. The group under systemic anesthesia showed much stronger symptoms than those treated without anesthesia.

All of the anterior ocular changes disappeared within a week. The highest temperature during exposure was in the vitreous, followed by the anterior chamber, and the retrobulbar cavity of the orbit. The ocular temperatures of the rabbits under systemic anesthesia were 2-9 degrees C higher than those without anesthesia. Body temperature showed an increase of 1 degrees C during the exposure. Acute high intensity microwave exposure temporarily induced anterior segments inflammation and lens changes. The more pronounced ocular effects in the anesthetized rabbits were associated with the significantly higher ocular temperatures in the anesthetized animals. The influence of systemic anesthesia on ocular changes Studies that show WiFi and Devices Health Effects should be considered.

Yu Y, Yao K. Non-thermal cellular effects of lowpower microwave radiation on the lens and lens epithelial cells. J Int Med Res. 38(3):729-736, 2010.

Because of the increased use of modern radiofrequency devices, public concern about the possible health effects of exposure to microwave radiation has arisen in many countries. It is well established that high-power microwave radiation can induce cataracts via its thermal effects. It remains unclear whether low-power microwave radiation, especially at levels below the current exposure limits, is cataractogenic. This review summarizes studies on the biological effects of lowpower microwave radiation on lens and lens epithelial cells (LECs). It has been reported that exposure affects lens transparency, alters cell proliferation and apoptosis, inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication, and induces genetic instability and stress responses in LECs. These results raise the question of whether the ambient microwave environment can induce non-thermal effects in the lens and whether such effects have potential health consequences. Further in vivo studies on the effects on the lens of exposure to low-power microwave radiation are needed.

Balci M, Namuslu M, Devrim E, Durak I. Effects of computer monitoremitted radiation on oxidant/antioxidant balance in cornea and lens from rats. Mol Vis. 15:2521-2525, 2009.

PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the possible effects of computer monitor-emitted radiation on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in corneal and lens

tissues and to observe any protective effects of vitamin C (vit C). METHODS:

Four groups (PC monitor, PC monitor plus vitamin C, vitamin C, and control) each consisting of ten Wistar rats were studied. The study lasted for three weeks.

Vitamin C was administered in oral doses of 250 mg/kg/day. The computer and computer plus vitamin C groups were exposed to computer monitors while the other groups were not. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in corneal and lens tissues of the rats. RESULTS: In corneal tissue, MDA levels and CAT activity were found to increase in the computer group compared with the control group. In the computer plus vitamin C group, MDA level, SOD, and GSH-Px activities were higher and CAT activity lower than those in the computer and control groups. Regarding lens tissue, in the computer group, MDA levels and GSH-Px activity were found to increase, as compared to the control and computer plus vitamin C groups, and SOD activity was higher than that of the control group. In the computer plus vitamin C group, SOD activity was found to be higher and CAT activity to be lower than those in the control group. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that computer-monitor radiation leads to oxidative stress in the corneal and lens tissues, and that vitamin C may prevent oxidative effects in the lens.

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