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«Natalie Grant A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Music Performance (Honours) Course ...»

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The only requirements are that the marimbist read the text while playing (not using a second person to read), and that the audience understands it clearly. (The numbers, one to twenty, should not be read exactly on downbeats, to emphasize how they stand apart from the text proper.) Amplification may be useful, depending on the nature of the venue. There can be some degree of staging if desired (lighting, set design, etc.).40 Instrumentation: solo marimba (five octave) and voice Duration: 12' Score: original held at Canadian Music Centre: Library Number MI 7110 R746con Recording: Not available Additional Information: premiered November 11, 2001 at The Knitting Factory, New York; Nancy Zeltsman, marimba http://www.musiccentre.ca/apps/index.cfin?fuseaction=score.FA dsp details&bib]iographyid=51729&dsp page=i Michael Askill (b. 1952 Sydney, Australia) Spirals 2001 Percussion quartet Much of the inspiration for spirals comes from T h e Power of Limits: Proportional Harmonies in Nature, Art and Architecture' by the Hungarian architect Gyorgy Doczi (Boulder, 1981). There is spoken text used in the second of three movements 'Inward spiral' is from 'Mr Palomar' by Italo Calvino, whose work Michael Askill "returns to often and finds constantly fascinating".

Instrumentation: vibraphone, crotales, marimba, torn toms, bongos, voice (and improvising voice) Duration: 15' Score: 2001 Celestial Harmonies (BMI) Recording: not available Additional Information: commissioned by synergy percussion (www.synergypercussion.com) with funding from the Australia Council.

Premiered by the Amadinda Percussion Group at the 2003 Autumn Festival in Budapest. Music setting by Phihp South

Adam Silverman (b. 1973 Georgia, USA)Stars, Cars, Bars 1999Marimba and voice

From a composer whose music often incorporates theatrical elements, Stars, Cars, Bars (with text based Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita) has been performed recently on tour throughout Australia, and in New York as the closing piece of the "Say What" Festival by Music Journeys, Inc.

Instrumentation: marimba and voice Duration: 10' Score: Adam B. Silverman Music Publications (BMI) not available Additional Information: composed for and premiered by Paul Fadoul. Australian premiere performed by John Dewhurst. Also performed by Samuel Z. Solomon, Daniel Pate, and others 41

Hazel SmithSerpent Ex Spearhead 1988Voice and metronome

This work is a performance text for voice and metronome. The metronome sets a pulse and the voice performs the words in notated rhythms. These rhythms are partly dictated by the words themselves, and partly superimposed, but there is complete interdependence between the linguistic and musical elements. The piece consists of six cycles of fourteen bars. All the words are derived by sound or sense from the words of the title.

The piece involves a titanic struggle between opposites: between good and evil, between male and female, between the hidden and visible, the ancient and modern, dream and reality. The meaning is not constant or continuous, rather it keeps disrupting itself and changing direction, but the sound binds the meaning together.

http://www.adambsilverman.com Instrumentation: voice and metronome

Duration: 3' Score: Soma Publishing Recording: Poet without Language Rufus Records, 199442 Additional Information: the term 'sound poet' has been used to define poets and musicians who creatively explore connections between spoken text and music.

English/Australian experimental poet/performer/composer Hazel Smith is one such poet/composer Frederic Rzewski (b.1938 Massachusetts, USA) To The Earth 1985 Speaking percussionist and flower pots The text in this work is a Homeric hymn, whose words are spoken more or less together with the music in rhythmic phrases. The words themselves celebrate the Earth as the mother of life - giving the piece a particularly ritualistic aspect.

American born Rzewski now lives in Belgium.

Instrumentation: knitting needles on four clay flower-pots, voice Duration: 10' Score: Studio4 music Recording: Drumming Evelyn Glennie (1996 BMG Classics) ' http://www.australysis.com/hsmith.htm Rupert Kettle (1940-2005 Michigan, USA) Dining Room Music 1983/4 Four percussionists and tablevyare This is based on John Cage's Living Room Music. As the composer explains, Dining Room Music uses Cage's rhythmic structures, but in reverse order....The talking movement here is a rebuttal to the Gertrude Stein text used by Cage and was written by a distant relative of Gertrude's, Phyllis Stein: "Happily ever after the world is flat Don't you fall off and go ker-splat."

Instrumentation: four percussipnists and tableware: objects found on any dining room table, hammered dulcimer (or vibraphone) Duration: 7' Score: studio4 music Recording: not available Additional Information: dedication: to Maria Singer

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Nicolas Martynciow (b. St Etienne, France) Tchik 2003 Snare drum Tchik is a rhythmical and swinging solo snare drum work incorporating vocal sounds. The spoken rhythms are to be delivered "in a normal tone of voice, or mumbling at periods, at other times articulating as clearly as possible".43 The performer is instructed to play at different distances towards and away from the rim of the snare drum, as well as 'bossa nova' style with the stick across the rim.

Instrumentation: snare drum (with drum sticks, brushes and mallets), voice Duration: 9' Score: Billaudot Recording: not available Additional Information: The word 'tchik7 is meant to sound like an open hi hat being closed Notes from the score Vanessa Lann (b. 1968 New York, USA) American Accents 1995 Multi-percussion duo This work is a multi percussion duo with vocalisations using American vowel sounds. "Oo" is like the "U" in "Utrecht". "Ee" is like the "ee" in "weekend".44 The vocal sounds (for example "bada, bada, bada doo da") are based on scatsinging. Standing with hands on hips, the performers begin on opposite sides of the set-up and gradually move in towards the centre as they change instruments.

Most of the set-up is covered with a cloth (the composer suggests red, white and blue to tie in with the American theme). This is removed slowly throughout the performance as indicated in score.

Instrumentation: multi-percussion duet - 2 snare drums, 2 toms, kick drum, 3 triangles, 3 cymbals, 2 wood blocks, glockenspiel, vibraphone, finger clicking Duration: 10' Score: Donemus Recording: not available Vinko Globokar (b. 1934 Anderny, France) Toucher (to touch v.) 1973 Multi-percussion solo "Playing as if speaking, speaking as if playing, playing and speaking, playing and singing..." 45 - these are the guiding principles behind Globokar's work and he Notes from the score http://pages.interlog.com/~nmc/2001-2002.pdf.

encourages performers to always keep speech very much in mind. In Toucher, Globokar chose fragments from Bertold Brecht's "Galileo", translated into French.

The percussionist then chooses seven instruments or objects and produces sounds on them which are analogues to the vowels; for the consonants they devise sounds which are produced exclusively with the hands.

During the course of the piece he/she switches from one developmental stage to another. The performer speaks while producing sounds on the instruments and then continues with the sounds alone, without words: the listener can then understand what the fingers are saying. The individual scenes are separated by rhythmic interludes, like the scenes of a play.

Instrumentation: multi-percussion: free choice of 7 instruments or objects (text Bertolt Brecht- in French) Duration: 8'30" Score: C.F. Peters (P08286) Recording: Accord 1966 (Koch Schwann Aulos) Additional Information: along with Corporel, Toucher is from a larger ensemble work called "Laboratory", dedication: to Jean-Pierre Drouet; premiere: 23 November 1973, Neheim Hnsteri, Germany, J. P. Drouet, soloist

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Improvements in travel and communication have m a d e it increasingly easier for Western composers to seek influence from non-Western musical cultures. The following works h a v e d r a w n on the language, d r u m m i n g and vocal melodies from Africa, the Caribbean, the Balkans, India and Indonesia.

Nebojsa Jovan Zivkovic (b.1962 Serbia)

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Djembe and voice If there is a rhythm section in Heaven, the realm of the Gods, then surely the people of Africa and the Balkans have the say there. "To the Gods of Rhythm" is a mixture of the music tradition of those two cultures. The sound of rhythm and chant from the Balkans, whose melody is based on a Serbian Orthodox Church song, are the essence of this piece. The extreme energy comes from probably the most fascinating African drum, djembe.46

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The performer makes loud shouting and screaming sounds, glissing up and down.

In one section, seven indicated rhythms should be first spoken only and then spoken and played together with the drum, leaving 3-4 seconds between each rhythm. The performer also sings a notated melody with the "C" pitch being the bass tone of the drum, over an improvised drum solo.

Instrumentation: drum (djembe) and voice Duration: 5' Score: Musica Europea Recording: Uneven Souls Additional Information: premiered: 23.11.1994 Kornwestheim, Germany Russell Hartenberger (b.1944) Rhagavan Drum kit solo with optional text Ramnad V. Raghavan is a master of the mrdangam, the principal percussion instrument in the Carnatic music tradition of South India. Raghavan is based on mrdangam music taught to Russel Hartenberger at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. The solo is for snare drum and two torn toms. The torn toms should be tuned a perfect fourth apart. Accompanying the solo part is an ostinato which begins 8 bars before the solo part begins, and continues throughout the piece. The ostinato can be played by the solo performer on kick drum and hi hat. It can also be played by a second person on either kick drum and hi hat or bass drum and cymbals together. The ostinato can also be played by two other people on bass drum and cymbals. 47 The text comes from the adi-tala associated with each different section of the work (South Indian vocal sounds imitating those of the mrdangam), and may be arranged and performed at the percussionists discretion.

Instrumentation: high hat, kick drum, snare drum, hi and low toms, voice Duration: 10-12' Score: Honeyrock (USA) Recording: not available Roberto Sierra (b. 1953 Puerto Rico) Bongo-01982 Bongo solo Percussion instruments have been used by many contemporary composers almost exclusively as a medium to convey certain coloristic effects. When listening to Afro-Caribbean folk music, one becomes aware that in this genre, rhythm is the most important factor. The articulations and modes of their functions are mainly to help in the shaping of the rhythmic figures.

Notes from the score Bongo-0 follows the same line of Afro-Caribbean music, in the sense that rhythm is the foremost parameter. The bongos are used in the traditional manner, with the exception of several unorthodox striking techniques, such as scratching heads with fingernails.

As in Caribbean folk music, the articulations and modes of attack form an integral part of the rhythmic patterns. Rhythm and other parameters are treated in such a way that the form of the piece is in continuous transformation. During this process of change, the voice of the percussionist is utilized as a quasi-percussive element.

Instrumentation: bongos and voice Duration: 5' Score: Subito Recording: Drumming Evelyn Glennie (1996 BMG) Akira Nishimura (b. 1953 Osaka, Japan) Kecak 1979 Percussion sextet This is an ensemble work based on Indonesian rhythmic patterns and dance drama with vocal sounds. This piece is based on four types of rhythm patterns extracted by analyzing the rhythm of Kecak: a Balinese dance usually performed at night, surrounding a bonfire. The westerners called this dance The Monkey Dance, for the movements are similar to that of a monkey.

In the dance bare-chested men, sitting down on the ground surrounding the bonfire, led by a priest in the middle.

The only music to accompany them is the beats of their palms hitting their chests, their thighs, or other parts of their bodies, or their claps, rhythmically accompanied by shouting and chanting. 48 The four rhythmic patterns used in Kecak make up a hocket of rhythm that flows over throughout the piece like a belt of rhythmic movement. The four in charge of the rhythmic patterns perform with the utterance of "tjak, tjak, tjak...", and from behind, the timpani and the tubular bells develop a dramatic dialogue in the mode similar to one of Indian Raga.

Instrumentation: bongos, congas, maracas, claves, tubular bells, tam-tams, sleigh bells, timpani (6), suspended cymbals, sizzle cymbal Duration: 11' Score: Ongaku Recording: Ketiak - Works ofAkira Nishimurai'Percussion Group 72 1995 Additional Information: premiere: 1979, Tokyo, Japan http://www.indo.com/culture/dance music.html

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Bill Cahn (b.1946 Philadelphia. USA) Recital Piece 1975/6 Xylophone solo This piece is for solo xylophone with pre-recorded voice-over communicating with the audience. Originally written for radio, the Recital Piece provided a way for (Canadian percussion ensemble) Nexus member Bill Cahn to give a narrative/explanation for the new music Nexus was creating, and to bring performance art to recorded medium. In this work, the performer must read a text and record text on tape in their own voice. In performance, the xylophonist accompanies the pre-recorded tape.

Instrumentation: xylophone with tape Duration: 13' Score: HoneyRock Recording: The Solo Percussionist (Music for Percussion by William L. Cahn) Nexus Records 10339 Additional Information: dedication: to Robin Engleman; premiere: 1977, Walter Hall, Toronto, Canada, Robin Engelman, soloist

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Michael Van Der Aa (b.1970, Netherlands) Wake 1997 Multi-percussion duo Wake is a Commedia dell'arte for a percussionist and a percussionist who mimes.

Michael Van der Aa examined to what degree visual and audible parts could interfere in a virtual canon. Both percussionists 'play' the same material after each other.

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