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Date: _____________ Dilution__________________
H Appendix C - Questionnaire March 6, 2002
To Whom It May Concern:
Enclosed you will find a survey that aims to investigate aggression in captive spider monkeys.
Spider monkeys are somewhat understudied with respect to other species of monkeys, such as macaques. To better understand aggression in captive spider monkeys we are seeking assistance from other zoos and wildlife parks that house relatively large groups of spider monkeys (3 individuals).
In the wild, spider monkeys form multi-male/multi-female societies in which the males form the core of the group and maturing females leave their natal group and immigrate to a new group. Within spider monkey society, which ranges from 18 to upwards of 70 individuals, the monkeys form subgroups, of approximately 3-5 individuals, and these sub-groupings are fluid as membership within the small groups is constantly changing (Fedigan & Baxter 1984;
Chapman 1990; McFarland Symington 1990; Chapman et al. 1995).
In spite of this fission-fusion social organisation, which appears to reduce conflict among group members over limited resources, severe aggression by males toward females and juvenile males has been reported in wild populations. In order to better understand the relationship between social organization and aggression, as well as the implications for colony management and well-being of spider monkeys, we are seeking information on the patterning of aggression in captive spider monkeys (Ateles species) by asking keepers and other appropriate staff to fill out the attached survey.
Thank you for your time and effort involved in participating in my study. We will be disseminating a final report to all the institutions that participated. We would appreciate having the survey returned to Nick Davis at Chester Zoo by April 30, 2002. If you have any questions regarding the survey, feel free to contact Nick Davis at Chester Zoo (email@example.com). The survey has been reviewed and endorsed by the studbook keeper for spider monkeys in Europe.
Our survey seeks information regarding specific incidents of aggression that resulted in physical injury to spider monkeys and the social organisation of the group at the time the aggression occurred. We appreciate the time commitment involved in filling out a survey of this scope and will provide all respondents with a summary of my findings. Any information that you can provide would be appreciated.
Name of your institution ___________________________________________________
Contact person and number or email________________________________________________________________
Species of spider monkey: circle one
1) Have you observed or recorded injurious aggression, aggression that required veterinary assistance (antibiotics, stitches, temporary isolation of individual), in your colony of spider monkeys during the past five years (if possible)?
If you have not witnessed or recorded injurious aggression in your spider monkey group, please return the survey indicating that your group is injurious aggression free.
Please include any information about the social organisation as this information is also valuable.
2) In your experience, does any particular event or situation appear to lead to injurious aggression in your spider monkey group?
3) In your opinion does spider monkey aggression differ compared to other primate species you work with, and if so how does it differ? (for example, frequency, duration, intensity) 4) *For each instance of severe aggression in which animals required veterinary attention (e.g., received antibiotics or stitches) or other cases you feel would be of
interest, please indicate the following points from a through g:
a) the date of observed aggression or injuries;
b) the composition of the group, indicating the sex and age of each member, their genetic relationship to one another (e.g. by producing a taxonomic report for the day of aggression);
c) whether there were any recent changes in group composition, if so what was the change;
d) which animals were injured (animal I.D. or indicate sex and age);
e) the injuries observed;
f) the aggressor (where known, animal I.D. or sex and age);
g) any additional information available regarding the incident.
*Please feel free to attach ARKS or MEDARKS database printouts in lieu of filling out this portion of the survey if this facilitates your ability to respond.
Dear Following a questionnaire on aggression in spider monkeys which you completed back in 2002 I am after some further information which will help in the analysis of the results. It has been suggested that enclosure size may be an important factor in the rates of aggression in spider monkeys. I would be grateful if you could send me the approximate areas (m²) of both the indoor and outdoor enclosures during the period 1997 to 2002.
Thank you again for your time and effort involved in participating in our study. We will be disseminating a final report to all the institutions that participated on completion. If you have any questions regarding the survey, feel free to contact myself at Chester Zoo (firstname.lastname@example.org). The survey has been reviewed and endorsed by the studbook keeper for spider monkeys in Europe Regards
Davis, N., Schaffner, C.M., & Smith, T.E. (2005). Evidence that zoo visitors influence HPA activity in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyii rufiventris). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 90(2), 1331-141.
Appendix F Davis, N., Schaffner, C.M., & Wehnelt, S. (2009). Patterns of injury in zoo-housed spider monkeys: A problem with males? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 116(2-4), 250-259.
Davis, N., Schaffner, C.M., & Smith, T.E. (2002). The impact of zoo visitors on hormonal indices of stress in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyii fusciceps).
Paper presented at XIX International Primatological Society Congress, 5th – 9th August 2002, Beijing, China.
Davis, N., Schaffner, C.M., & Wehnelt, S. (2004). The context, direction and intensity of aggression in captive spider monkeys. Paper presented at XX International Primatological Society Congress, 23rd – 28th August 2004, Torino, Italy.
Davis, N., & Schaffner, C.M. (2005). Dynamics of aggression in zoo-housed spider monkeys. Paper presented at Spring Primate Society of Great Britain Meeting, 22nd – 23rd March 2005. University College Chester, UK.
Davis, N., Schaffner, C.M., & Smith, T.E. (2008). Evidence for aggressive conflicts leading to increased urinary cortisol in a zoo-housed group Of spider monkeys. Paper presented at XXII International Primatological Society Congress, 3rd – 8th August 2008, Edinburgh, UK.
Davis, N., Schaffner, C.M., & Smith, T.E. (2009). The impact of social events on urinary cortisol in zoo-housed spider monkeys. Paper presented at the Spring Primate Society of Great Britain Meeting, April 16th – 17th 2009, University of