«by: MA. ALETHA A. NOGRA Civil Def fense Offic III cer Office of Civil D e Defense-Departmen of Natio Defen nt onal nse R Republic o the Philippines ...»
stitut alizin Resili
tiona ng R ience of
Com nities an Na n:
mmun nd ation
e ilippines and Jap E erien
s d pan Expe nces
MA. ALETHA A. NOGRA
fense Offic III
Office of Civil D
e Defense-Departmen of Natio Defen
nt onal nse
Republic o the Philippines
This report was compiled by an ADRC visiting researcher (VR) from ADRC
The views expressed in the report do not necessarily reflect the views of the ADRC. The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on the maps in the report also do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the ADRC.
Table of Contents Page I. Acknowledgement 4 II. Background and Significance of the Study 5 III. Delimitation of the Study 7 IV. Institutionalizing DRRM in the Philippines 8 A. Republic Act 10121 8 B. NDRRM Framework 11 C. NDRRM Plan 14 D. Recognizing Communities’ DRRM Initiatives 25 o National Disaster Consciousness Month 25 o Fire Prevention Month 26 o Gawad KALASAG 27 o Seal of Disaster Preparedness 34 o Bakas Parangal 38 E. Examples of Good Practices in Community-based DRRM in the Philippines 40 o Municipality of San Jose de Buenavista, Province of Antique 40 o Chamber Volunteer Fire Brigade 44 o Cabasi Sta. Rosa Elementary School 45 V. Institutionalizing DRRM in Japan 47 A. Japan DM System 47 o National DM System 48 o Hyogo Prefectural DM System 63 o Kobe City DM System
I. Acknowledgement The author expresses her sincere appreciation to the… Asian Disaster Reduction Center for the most valuable opportunity to learn about Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Japan. ADRC has made possible that learning through experience is learning for a lifetime… Office of Civil Defense-Department of National Defense (OCD-DND) whose relentless pursuit for excellence in disaster risk reduction and management has prompted me to be in Japan as a visiting researcher… Co-Visiting Researchers from Thailand, India and Indonesia for the fun and frenzy exploration of Japan for three and a half months… Family and friends for the love, support and inspiration… II. Background and Significance of the Study The communities are always at the forefront of every disaster or emergency. If they will be the backbone of disaster prevention and mitigation as well as preparedness measures, they will deliver their respective communities to resilience and contribute to the nation’s pursuit for sustainable development. Thus, there is a need to empower the communities to be able to cope and manage every disaster that would come along their way and to be able to continuously build resilience. In this aspect, the government plays a very vital role in leading the communities towards resilience.
In the Philippines, there is recently an enabling law to be able to achieve this but so much efforts with long-term positive impacts have to be done yet and on-going investments on community-based disaster risk reduction (CBDRRM) must be continued.
The Great-Hansin Awaji Earthquake in 1995 was the turning point of resilience for the Japanese community but the lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake prompted them to continuously and strongly pursue CBDRRM. It is in this light that this paper will delve into the different good practices in CBDRRM between the Philippines and Japan experiences.
As defined in the Republic Act 10121 or the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010, "Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management" or "CBDRRM" is a process of disaster risk reduction and management in which at risk communities are actively engaged in the identification, analysis, treatment, monitoring and evaluation of disaster risks in order to reduce their vulnerabilities and enhance their capacities, and where the people are at the heart of decision-making and implementation of disaster risk reduction and management activities.
As such, this study will try to explore the participation of the community which includes the local government units (LGUs) specifically the local disaster risk reduction and management councils (LDRRMCs) from the city and municipal levels who have a direct coordination with the barangays or the grassroots level together with the people themselves and the rest of the key players at the local levels, the schools, the churches, private organizations, business sectors found in the area, health sectors and the rest of the elements in the area, with the steering leadership of the national government as a whole.
Furthermore, this study encompasses the following entities that make up a community: the people themselves: men, women, children, the elderly, persons with disabilities, the government, the non-government, the business sector, private sector, all who are actors in a community. The local government units (LGUs) which may be a city, a municipality and or a barangay. The local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Councils (LDRRMCs) as a leader in the implementation of disaster risk reduction and management programs. The civil society organizations (CSOs) or non-state actors whose aims are neither to generate profits nor to seek governing power. CSOs that unite people to advance shared goals and interests. They have a presence in public life, expressing the values and interests of their members or others and are based on ethical, cultural, scientific, religious, or philanthropic considerations. It also includes non-government organizations (NGOs), professional associations, foundations, independent research institutes, other community-based organizations (CBOs), faith-based organizations, people’s organizations, social movements, and labor unions who are continuously initiating and investing in disaster risk reduction as a strategy for sustainable development.
III. Delimitation of the Study
This study is limited only to the institutionalization of the disaster risk reduction and management programs, projects and activities in the Philippines and Japan contexts and how such process has empowered the communities to become more resilient against any disaster or emergency.
The first part of the study will focus on the Philippine experience banking on the new law entitled Republic Act 10121 or the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 which transforms the country’s disaster risk reduction and management system into a more proactive stance. This paper will try to delve on some of the examples of the good practices in DRRM by a number of local disaster risk reduction and management councils and non-government organizations as well as volunteer groups in the Philippines which play a significant role in creating a disaster resilient communities and leading them towards the path of sustainable development.
The second part of the study will give an extensive discussion of creating a culture of safety and resilience in Japan starting from the laws and guidelines issued by the Central Government, major roles that the government play in promoting and implementing these laws, the corporate social responsibility and commitment to disaster risk reduction of the business communities and the participation and cooperation of the people themselves.
The discussion is limited only to the accounts of actual experiences and learning that the author has encountered in the various study tours all over Japan, seminars and conferences with local and international experts, and personal readings of reference materials provided during the term under the Visiting Researcher Program of the Asian Disaster Reduction Center on January 15 to April 22, 2013.
Through the ADRC Visiting Researcher Program, the lessons learned from the Great Hanshin Awaji Earthquake and the Great East Japan Earthquake as well as the good practices in disaster risk reduction being undertaken by the government and non-government entities in Japan would be very useful for the author in carrying out her duties and responsibilities as Civil Defense Officer and DRR practitioner in the Philippines given the implementation of the provisions of Republic Act 10121.
IV. Institutionalizing DRRM in the Philippines The earliest records of disaster management for the Philippines is traced back before the so-called pre-colonial era as reflected in the earliest religious beliefs of the inhabitants and in their ways of coping with natural phenomena. It is said that early disaster preparedness capabilities of the Filipinos can be inferred from the artifacts dated as early as 2000 BCE in the province of Ifugao wherein the stone wall outlines are traces of an ancient fortress that also provided protection from natural disasters1. The geographical location and geotectonic setting of the country makes it prone to all types of natural hazards.
The evolution of the Philippine disaster management had been influenced by the various natural and human-induced disasters that severely impacted on the lives and properties of the Filipino people.
A. Republic Act 10121 On 27 May 2010, Republic Act 10121 or the legal basis for the paradigm shift from just disaster preparedness and response to disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines was enacted. Republic Act 10121 is entitled “An Act Strengthening the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System, Providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and Institutionalizing the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan, Appropriating Funds Therefore and for Other Purposes” otherwise known as the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010.
The law is the revolutionary instrument in institutionalizing disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines from the national level down to the grassroots level or the barangay level together with participation and cooperation of private sector, non-government organizations, volunteer groups and the communities themselves.
1 “The Philippine Disaster Management Story”.Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), October 2001, The law stipulates the policy of the State to uphold people’s constitutional rights to life and property by addressing the root causes of vulnerabilities to disasters, strengthening the country’s capacity for disaster risk reduction and management, and building the resilience of local communities to disasters including climate change impacts.
Salient Features of RA 10121 or the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 RA 10121 provides for the development of policies and plans and the implementation of actions and measures pertaining to all aspects of disaster risk reduction and management, including good governance, risk assessment and early warning, knowledge building and awareness raising, reducing underlying risk factors, and preparedness for effective response and early recovery.
Section 5 provides for the organization of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. The former National Disaster Coordinating Council or NDCC is known as the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council, hereinafter referred to as the NDRRMC or the National Council. The National Council shall be headed by the Secretary of the Department of National Defense (DND) as Chairperson with the Secretary of the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) as Vice Chairperson for Disaster Preparedness, the Secretary of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) as Vice Chairperson for Disaster Response, the Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) as Vice Chairperson for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, and the Director General of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) as Vice Chairperson for Disaster Rehabilitation and Recovery. The members have increased to 38 from 18 member agencies.
The NDRRMC or the National Council plays a very critical role in shaping the country’s disaster risk reduction and management system as a strategy for sustainable development and poverty reduction in the Philippines. The National Council is empowered with policy-making, coordination, integration, supervision, monitoring and evaluation functions which will be carried out through the seventeen (17) main responsibilities stipulated in the law. The NDRRMC Chairperson is authorized, as provided for in Section 7 of the law, to call upon other instrumentalities or entities of the government, including the reserve forces, and non government organizations for assistance in terms of the use of their facilities and resources for the protection and preservation of life and properties in the whole range of disaster risk reduction and management.
The Office of Civil Defense, on the other hand, plays a strategic role, in the implementation of disaster risk reduction and management programs, projects and activities in the Philippines. The OCD is mandated to have the primary mission of administering a comprehensive national civil defense and disaster risk reduction and management program by providing leadership in the continuous development of strategic and systematic approaches as well as measures to reduce the vulnerabilities and risks to hazards and manage the consequences of disasters. The Administrator of the OCD serves as the Executive Director of the National Council. The National Council utilizes the services and facilities of OCD as secretariat of the National Council.