«by: MA. ALETHA A. NOGRA Civil Def fense Offic III cer Office of Civil D e Defense-Departmen of Natio Defen nt onal nse R Republic o the Philippines ...»
The NDRRMP also identified areas where resources can be tapped for the implementation of the activities. These are both for the national and local levels. However, because mainstreaming of DRRM into policies and plans is the primary thrust of the NDRRMP, these activities will not have separate funding sources but will be mainstreamed into the activities of the agencies and offices. Sources identified include the General Appropriations Act (GAA); National and Local DRRM Funds; Internal Revenue Allocation (IRA); Priority Development Assistance Fund (PDAF); Donor Funds; Adaptation and Risk Financing, among others. Aside from the fund sources, the NDRRMP will also tap into the non-monetary resources available which can help attain the targets identified in this plan.
These are the community-based good practices for replication and scaling up; indigenous practices on DRRM; Public-Private-Partnerships; and the different networks (DRR and CCA) of key stakeholders.
Monitoring and evaluation are essential components of results-based programming in DRRM as these will ensure that the plan’s on-time implementation and that learnings from past experiences become input to the plan altogether. Also, through monitoring and evaluation activities, appropriate and needed revisions and/or changes can be identified, from the identified activities to the implementation mechanisms, in case more appropriate ones are realized. These will be led by the Office of Civil Defense, in close coordination with the four vice chairpersons of the NDRRMC by focusing on relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability. A standard monitoring and evaluation template will be developed by the OCD together with the members of the Technical Management Group.
As such, the NDRRM Plan will serve as a roadmap on how disaster risk reduction and management will contribute to the attainment of sustainable development through inclusive growth and build the adaptive capacities of communities, increase the resilience of vulnerable sectors and optimize disaster management opportunities with the end view of promoting people’s welfare and security towards gender-responsive and rights-based sustainable development.
Implementation Strategies and Mechanisms All throughout the NDRRMP, various strategies were identified to be used in order to
achieve the desired key result areas under each DRRM aspect. These are:
Advocacy and Information, Education and Communication (IEC) A strong national and local commitment is required to save lives and livelihoods threatened by natural and human-induced disasters. Achieving this will need increasing visibility and understanding of DRRM and CCA issues, mobilize partnerships, encourage actions and gather public support for successful implementation of the different activities. The NDRRMP will use evidence-based advocacy to influence people, policies, structures and systems in order to build resilient Filipino communities by raising awareness, working with the media and key stakeholders. The NDRRM will develop advocacy, IEC and various communication strategies based on risk assessments and good DRRM practices.
Competency-based capability building Conducting customized training programs should be developed to ensure that people are trained based on the needed skills in the different DRRM aspects. Different people have different needs and capacities and developing competency-based capability building programs ensures that knowledge, skills and attitudes are enhanced and built upon further.
Contingency Planning More commonly used before as only part of disaster preparedness activities, contingency planning is now a living document which is updated and used in all the different the priority areas of DRRM. Learnings from past experiences and complementary actions between and across areas should be taken into consideration in developing contingency planning at all levels.
Education on DRRM and CCA for All Mainstreaming DRRM into formal education through the integration of DRRM and CCA concepts in the curriculum for basic education, NSTP, and bachelors’ degree programs. This also includes the conduct of DRRM and CCA training to all public sector employees as mandated by law.
Institutionalization of DRRMCs and LDRRMOs The creation of permanent local DRRM offices and functioning councils at the local level are some of the ways to ensure that all DRRM-related activities, plans and program will be implemented and sustained, especially at the local level. Having a point of convergence is important to ensure that risk reduction measures complement one another and are institutionalized with the end in view of reducing people and institutional vulnerabilities to disasters. This will likewise promote the paradigm shift into local planning by investing into risk-reduction measures and not just be reactionary and conduct response operations when the disaster strikes.
Mainstreaming of DRR in All Plans In all 4 priority areas under the NDRRMP, ensuring the mainstreaming of DRRM and CCA in the various programs, plans, projects of either national or local government units, including the private sector groups and other members of the community is a must. This primarily means that disaster risks analysis and impacts are integrated and taken into consideration in the development of policies and plans by the different agencies, organizations and sectors.
Research, Technology Development and Knowledge Management With the changes in the climate and technological advances, regularly conducting research and technology development will contribute to more innovative and adaptive mechanisms and approaches towards DRRM and CCA. Along side new information, knowledge management through database development, documentation, replication and recognition of good practices will help achieve the objectives and targets of the NDRRMP through more efficient use of resources, learnings and experiences.
Monitoring, evaluation and learning Feedback mechanisms are important aspects of gauging performance targets and learning from our experiences on the ground. The NDRRMP, being a long plan which transcends various administrations and leaderships, need to be constantly looked into in terms of its relevance and impact on the changing situations on the ground.
Networking and partnership building between and among stakeholders, media and tiers of government Building resilient communities cannot and should not be done by a single agency or organization. Its success is highly dependent on the close collaboration and cooperation of the different stakeholders. Building effective and mutually reinforcing partnerships and evolving networks ensure the multi-stakeholder and multi-sectoral participation of the different players in DRRM.
Agency Leads and Implementing Partners In each of the activities under the NDRRMP, agency leads and implementing partner
agencies and/or groups were identified. Their roles will primarily be:
Agency Leads Takes the lead in initiating the implementation of the activities Coordinate and collaborate with the different implementing partners to ensure that the activities are operationalized Monitor the progress of the activities Evaluate the implementation development and program efficiency Consolidate reports from the implementing partners and submit to the respective vice chairperson of the DRRM priority area Implementing Partners Perform the activities to achieve the specific outcomes Work with other implementing partners within the context of coordination, collaboration and partnership Submit report to the Agency Leads National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC) As explicitly stated under Republic Act 10121, the NDRRMC has the overall responsibility of approving the NDRRMP and ensuring it is consistent with the NDRRMF.
It also has the main responsibility of monitoring the development and enforcement by agencies and organizations of the various laws, guidelines, codes or technical standards required by this Act; managing and mobilizing resources for DRRM, including the National DRRM Fund (NDRRMF); monitoring and providing the necessary guidelines and procedures on the Local DRRM Fund (LDRRMF) releases as well as utilization, accounting and auditing thereof.
Office of Civil Defense As prescribed in RA 10121, the Office of Civil Defense has the main responsibility in ensuring the implementation and monitoring of the NDRRMP. Specifically, it is tasked conduct periodic assessments and performance monitoring of the member-agencies of the NDRRMC and the RDRRMCs as defined in the NDRRMP. The OCD is the agency responsible for ensuring that the physical framework, social, economic and environmental plans of communities, cities, municipalities and provinces are consistent with the NDRRMP. OCD needs to ensure that all DRR programs, projects and activities requiring regional and international support shall be in accordance with duly established national policies and aligned with international agreements At the regional and local levels, the OCD needs to review and evaluate the Local DRRM Plans (LDRRMPs) to facilitate the integration of disaster risk reduction measures into the local Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) and Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) Regional Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Councils (RDRRMCs) At the regional level, the RDRRMCs shall be responsible in ensuring that DRRM-sensitive regional development plans contribute to and are aligned with the NDRRMP. The RDRRMC chairperson shall be the overall lead.
Provincial, City, Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Councils (P/C/MDRRMCs or Local DRRMCs) At the local government level, it is the primary duty of the Local DRRM Council to ensure that DRRM is mainstreamed into their respective CDP and CLUP and other local plans, programs and budgets as a strategy in sustainable development and poverty reduction. By doing so, the LGUs will be sure that their respective DRRM-programs will be included in their local budgets for each fiscal year. But before DRRM can be mainstreamed into the CDP and CLUP, the local DRRM Plan will have to be developed by the Local DRRM Office and using the National DRRM Plan as an overall guide.
Local Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Offices (LDRRMOs) The Local DRRM Offices (LDRRMOs) at the provincial, city and municipal levels and the Barangay Development Councils shall design, program and coordinate DRRM activities consistent with the NDRRMP and develop the Local DRRM Plan of their respective LGUs. The LDRRMPs shall be consistent and aligned with the targets set by the NDRRMP. Likewise, this office shall take the lead in implementing the LDRRMP.
To do this, the office shall Facilitate and support risk assessments and contingency planning activities at the local level;
Consolidate local disaster risk information which includes natural hazards, vulnerabilities and climate change risks and maintain a local risk map;
Formulate and implement a comprehensive and integrated LDRRMP in accordance with the national, regional and provincial framework and policies on DRR in close coordination with the local development councils (LDCs) Prepare and submit to the local sanggunian through the LDRRMC and the LDC the annual LDRRMO Plan and budget, the proposed programming of the LDRRMF, other dedicated DRRM resources and other regular funding source/s and budgetary support of the LDRRMO/BDRRMC.
Conduct continuous disaster monitoring Identify, assess and manage the hazards, vulnerabilities and risks that may occur in their locality Disseminate information and raise public awareness Identify and implement cost-effective risk reduction measures/strategies Maintain a database of human resource, equipment, directories and local of critical infrastructures and their capacities such as hospitals and evacuation centers Develop, strengthen and operationalize mechanisms for partnership or networking with the private sector, CSOs, and volunteer groups
Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning Monitoring and evaluation are essential components of results-based programming in DRRM as these will ensure that the plan’s on-time implementation and that learnings from past experiences become input to the plan altogether. Also, through monitoring and evaluation activities, appropriate and needed revisions and/or changes can be identified, from the identified activities to the implementation mechanisms, in case more appropriate ones are realized. These will be led by the Office of Civil Defense, in close coordination with the four vice chairpersons of the NDRRMC by focusing on relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability. A standard monitoring and evaluation template will be developed by the OCD together with the members of the Technical Management Group.
Primarily, monitoring and evaluation will be based on the indicators, targets and activities identified in each of the four priority areas on DRRM. The indicators set in the NDRRMP will be applicable to both the national and local levels. The national level targets will be monitored by the lead and implementing agencies, in close coordination with the regional and local DRRM councils. Each lead agency will in turn submit reports to the respective vice chairperson of the NDRRMC in charge of the specific priority area.
The local level targets will be operationalized depending on the needs and situation on the LGU. These will be captured in the respective local DRRM plans which the LGUs need to develop through their respective local DRRM offices and councils. Customization of the targets will depend on the risk assessments and analysis done in their respective local areas. The local DRRM plan will be mainstreamed into the CDP and CLUP and will form part of the LGU mandated plans.
Monitoring and evaluation will also include an audit report on the use and status of the National DRRM Fund and how the said fund contributed to the attainment of the NDRRMP.