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«Global Climate Change: Carbon Reporting Initiative The AFOLU Carbon Calculator AFOLU CARBON CALCULATOR THE GRAZING MANAGEMENT TOOL: UNDERLYING DATA ...»

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Ui = percentage uncertainty associated with each of the parameters Utotal = the percentage uncertainty in the product of the parameters An example of combining uncertainties in estimating benefits from rewetting organic soil using the Tier 1

method is shown below:

–  –  –

5.2 COMBINING UNCERTAINTIES FOR ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

In the case of addition and subtraction, for example when carbon emissions are summed up, the

following equation will be applied:

–  –  –

Utotal = the percentage uncertainty in the sum of the parameters

An example of this application is in the yearly CO2 benefit (addition) shown below:

10 AFOLU CARBON CALCULATOR

–  –  –

Using this simple error propagation method is applicable to the calculations used in this grazing land tool. The Monte Carlo type analysis is more complicated to apply, but gives more reliable results particularly where uncertainties are large, distributions are non-normal, or correlations exist.

Furthermore, Tier 2 method can be applied to models or equations, which are not based only on addition, subtraction and multiplication. (The reader is referred to Chapter 5 of IPCC GPG LULUCF for more details on how to implement the Monte Carlo analysis).

6. CALCULATION METHODS

The sections below outline individual components of the overall calculation of carbon benefits in the GM tool (Box 1).

Box 1: Overarching methodology for calculating carbon benefits in Grazing Management Tool Yearly CO2 benefit (t CO2/yr) = (Soil carbon benefit) + (Livestock management benefit) + (Organic soil rewetting benefit) Total CO2 benefit (t CO2) = SUM of Yearly CO2 benefits Where users rely solely on the defaults in the calculator only the benefit of soil carbon accumulation is calculated. Parameters in red have default values provided, but can be changed by the user. Parameters in black are fixed within the calculations.

6.1 SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT The soil carbon term represents the difference in stable carbon stock between the two management approaches divided by 20 which is assumed (following the IPCC Guidelines) to be the number of years to transition from one stable stock to the other. The terms shown are in the equations below, and the default values used for each parameter are described.

11 AFOLU CARBON CALCULATOR

Box 2: Estimating emissions from tillage management Soil benefit = [(Soil carbon with project – Soil carbon without project) / 20] x (44/12) (Eq. 1) Changes in soil carbon stocks were calculated based on Section 2.3.3.1 of the IPCC (2006). The equation calculates the difference in carbon stocks in the soil before and after agricultural conversion, and divides this value by an assumed time period over which the change is forecasted to occur.

–  –  –

Where:

SOCREF = reference carbon stock (t C ha-1) FLU = stock change factor for land-use systems or sub-system for a particular land-use (dimensionless) FMG = stock change factor for management regime (dimensionless) FI = stock change factor for input of organic matter (dimensionless)

6.2 LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT The livestock management term represents the difference in emissions resulting from livestock populations with and without project activity implementation The terms shown are in the equations below, and the default values used for each parameter are described.

–  –  –

Livestock emissions are calculated based on Section 10.3 of the IPCC (2006). The basic Tier 1 approach is pairing the number of livestock by type with a per head methane emission factor (Tables 3 and 4). The emission factors are converted to carbon dioxide equivalents using the global warming potential for methane.

6.3 REWETTING ORGANIC SOILS

The rewetting organic soils term is estimated by multiplying the emission factor (

12 AFOLU CARBON CALCULATOR

Table 5) by the area that will be rewet by project activities. The terms shown are in the equations below, and the default values used for each parameter are described.

Box 4: Estimating emissions from tillage management

–  –  –

6.4 HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLE A hypothetic project activity over 500 hectares of grassland in Chad is given as an example here. First, users have to select the geographic location of the project, which in this hypothetical example will take place in Mandoul in Chad.

After entering the total area of the grazing management project activity (500 ha), the user has select improved grassland.

Thus, using equations 1 and 2, the benefits are calculated as:

Benefits (tCO2) = {[( Area *SOCREF*FLU*FMG,ImprovedGrassland, tropical *FI,low) - (Area *SOCREF*FLU *FMG,ModeratelyDegraded, tropical *FI,low)] / 20} * (44/12)

–  –  –

Thus equating to:

Benefits = {[(500 *32.58*1*1.17*1) - (500 32.58*1*0.97*1)] / 20} * (44/12) Benefits = 597.2 tCO2e In this hypothetical example, conducting only improved grassland management over these 500 ha in the Mandoul in Chad has resulted in a carbon benefit of approximately 597.2 t CO2e for the first year of the project.

13 AFOLU CARBON CALCULATOR

7. OVERRIDING DEFAULT DATA

The only data required to generate a CO2e impact result of the project activity is:

 Location of the project  Project size, or area, associated with the grazing activity The user is given an option to include livestock management and rewetting of organic soils as well as change default parameters by entering project-specific data. The following are the optional inputs under

the grazing management calculator:

Grassland Management  Soil carbon stocks in top 30 cm

Pre-project condition of grazing land:

 Drop down of: Unmanaged / Moderately degraded (default) / Severely degraded / Improved  Drop down of: No inputs (default) / added fertilizer and/or manure

With-project condition of grazed land:

 Drop down of: Unmanaged / Moderately degraded / Severely degraded / Improved (default)  Drop down of: No inputs (default) / added fertilizer and/or manure Livestock management Pre-project livestock Livestock type 1  Drop down: None (default) / dairy cows / other cattle / buffalo / sheep / goats / camels / horses / mules or asses / deer / swine or pigs  Number of livestock

–  –  –

Livestock type 2  Drop down: None (default) / dairy cows / other cattle / buffalo / sheep / goats / camels / horses / mules or asses / deer / swine or pigs  Number of livestock

14 AFOLU CARBON CALCULATOR

Rewetting organic soils:

 Area of organic soil to be rewet  Emissions factor of drained soil

8. REFERENCES GOFC-GOLD, 2013, A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation. GOFC-GOLD Report version COP19-2, (GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands).

Harmonized World Soil Database. 2012. Version 1.2. Available at:

http://webarchive.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/External-World-soil-database/HTML/ IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (eds). Published: IGES, Japan. Volume 4 Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use.

Paustian, K, Ravindranath, N.H. and Van Amstel, A (coordinating lead authors). Available at:

http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/vol1.htm

For questions and comments:

Felipe M. Casarim Carbon Specialist, Ecosystem Services

15 AFOLU CARBON CALCULATOR

Winrock International | 2121 Crystal Drive, Suite 500 | Arlington, VA 22202, USA | www.winrock.org office 703.302.6538 | fax 703.302.6512 | e-mail fcasarim@winrock.org



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