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«Editor Ruchita Beri Associate Editor Princy George Editorial Team Babjee Pothuraju Keerthi S Kumar Saurabh Mishra Africa Trends Volume 1, Number 2, ...»

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Angola and Congo-Brazzaville sign deals for exploration of Lianzi trans-frontier oil situation; Military mission to Guinea-Bissau to end; Angola: President of AU Peace and Security Council According to Chinese news reports, nearly 40 per cent of Angolan oil is exported to China which accounts for 16 per cent of Chinese imports of hydrocarbons. Angolan exports to China stood at over US$ 20 billion in 2011 which is expected to increase in 2012.63 The Angolan government is in talks with China to explore the possibility of exporting Angolan mining products which could ‘increase and diversify’ trade between the two countries. The Chinese government in exchange will export machinery and other instruments useful for Angola’s development programme. China has also set aside US$ 1 billion in an effort to strengthen its relations with Portuguese speaking nations.64 Meanwhile, the United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon expressed concern over the treatment of illegal migrants in the border regions between Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo, where systematic rape of displaced Congolese women and girls by men in uniform remains unabated.65 According to reports, Angola is set to open a diplomatic representation in East Timor in an effort to ‘restore the historical relations of privilege’ between the two countries. After the legislative elections in East Timor, the Angolan embassy is likely to open in Dili.66 In other developments, South Sudan is keen on strengthening its ties with Angola in various fields, particularly the oil sector, and will soon appoint an Ambassador to Luanda.67 In the interim, Angola and Congo-Brazzaville signed two deals for development and exploration of the Lianzi trans-frontier oil situation in the maritime zone between the two countries. These deals set the mechanism for sharing revenue from the exploration of the field that will start production in 2015 and the opening of a joint account for deposit of the incomes resulting from the operations.68 “China imports almost 40 per cent of Angolan oil”, Angola Press, February 29, 2012, at http:// www.portalangop.co.ao/motix/en_us/noticias/economia/2012/1/9/China-imports-almost-percent-Angolanoil,bd1b377b-7c2e-4854-a130-d36da9a4ea87.html “Angola plans to diversify its exports to China by adding mining resources”, Macauhub.com, March 30, 2012, at http://www.macauhub.com.mo/en/2012/03/30/angola-plans-to-diversify-its-exports-to-china-by-addingmining-resources/ “UN worried over rapes in Angola”, IOL News, February 27, 2012, at http://www.iol.co.za/news/africa/unworried-over-rapes-in-angola-1.1243698 “Angola to open embassy in East Timor”, Angola Press, February 22, 2012, at http://www.portalangop.co.ao/ motix/en_us/noticias/politica/2012/1/8/Angola-open-embassy-East-Timor,0db89cb0-e745-4cfe-a176bca2b154f.html “South Sudan keen to strengthen ties with Angola: minister”, People’s Daily, March 31, 2012, at http:// english.peopledaily.com.cn/90777/7775523.html “Angola and Congo sing oil fields exploration deals”, Angola Press, March 16, 2012, at http:// www.portalangop.co.ao/motix/en_us/noticias/economia/2012/2/11/Angola-and-Congo-sign-oil-fieldsexploration-daels,8bffc0e2-69d5-4b2c-aea7-417dac281c7a.html

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In other developments, Angola will end its military mission to Guinea-Bissau that was agreed to in 2010 to help modernise the army. The decision to end the mission had followed requests from ‘some sectors in Guinea Bissau’.69 Angola assumed the rotating presidency of the African Union Peace and Security Council from April 01, 2012 for a period of two years. The presidency is to be marked by the management and search for solutions to major crises that the African continent currently faces.70


Border security tightened after attack by Boko Haram; Chinese navy to supply material for shipyard; India and Cameroon sign MoU Cameroon tightened its border security by increasing the number of security officers along its border with Nigeria after an attack by members allegedly belonging to Boko Haram which left 15 people dead.71 During the visit of a Chinese marine delegation to the country, the Chinese navy agreed to supply material for the Douala shipyard in Cameroon. This assistance comes on the heels of cooperation between the two countries to secure Cameroonian waters especially the Gulf of Guinea when the Chinese navy had earlier offered some equipment.72 In other developments, India and Cameroon signed a Memorandum of Understanding during the recent visit of the President of the Cameroon Chamber of Commerce, Industry, Mines and Crafts to India. Cameroon also acknowledged the low penetration of Indian entrepreneurs into Cameroon and assured Indian investors an enlarged circle of cooperation links for the country.73


CAR woos Indian investment; UN Envoy for Central Africa: Kony in CAR; 11 CAR soldiers killed by Sudanese rebels The Central African Republic has wooed Indian investment in the country’s road, rail, hydroAngola to end military reform aid in Guinea Bissau”, Reuters Africa, April 10, 2012, at http://af.reuters.com/ article/topNews/idAFJOE83900P20120410 “Angola takes over AU Peace, Security Council”, Angola Press, April 2, 2012, at http://www.portalangop.co.ao/ motix/en_us/noticias/internacional/2012/3/14/Angola-takes-over-Peace-Security-Council,2c41dd90-7a10-4520add3-f5a5af73982a.html “Cameroon tightens border security after Boko Haram”, Bloomberg.com, April 13, 2012, at http:// www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-04-13/cameroon-tightens-border-security-after-boko-haram-attack.html “Armed Forces: Chinese Navy promises more support”, Cameroon Tribune, February 28, 2012, at http:// www.cameroon-tribune.cm/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=67146:armed-forces-chinese-navypromises-more-support&catid=1:politique&Itemid=3 “Branding Cameroon in India”, Cameroon Tribune, March 21, 2012, at http://www.cameroon-tribune.cm/ index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=67470:branding-cameroon-inindia&catid=1:politique&Itemid=3

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power and uranium mining projects. The other key area for potential Indian investment is in lowcost housing. In order to meet its growing energy needs, India is looking to access uranium from Africa and other regions.74 Meanwhile, the UN envoy for Central Africa disclosed that according to information received by investigators, Lord’s Resistance Army’s fugitive leader, Joseph Kony is in the Central African Republic. Countries in the region have set up a new coordinated force of 5,000 troops to hunt Kony.75 In other developments, Sudanese rebels killed 11 Central African Republic soldiers in a cross border ambush that was aimed at stealing weapons and ammunition. CAR’s army is part of a joint security operations team conducted with Sudan and Chad in the lawless border region.76


Reports say that November 2011 elections were flawed; Refugee influx in Ugandan camps Election observers reported that the legislative elections of November last year lacks credibility and the integrity of the national assembly results were compromised.77 European Union monitors too have voiced concern about the lack of reliability of the flawed polls.78 Meanwhile, a UN report has brought to light ‘serious human rights violations’ during the elections. The investigating team allegedly has credible information of several victims buried in a mass grave by ‘men in military uniform and others wearing white coats’.79 According to reports, the influx of refugees from DRC who fled the post-election related violence and the continued militia activity in the eastern parts of the country is stretching the capacity of refugee camps in Uganda. The UNHCR reports at least 2,000 DRC refugees crossing into western Uganda since January.80 “Central African Republic woos Indian Investment”, Yahoo News, March 19, 2012, at http://in.news.yahoo.com/ central-african-republic-woos-indian-investment-143627769.html “Joseph Kony believed to be in Central African Republic, UN envoy says”, NationalPost.com, March 23, 2012, at http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/03/23/joseph-kony-believed-to-be-in-central-african-republic-un-envoysays/ “CAR blames Sudan rebels for cross-border ambush”, Reuters.com, April 20, 2012, at http://www.reuters.com/ article/2012/04/20/us-car-attack-sudan-idUSBRE83J12L20120420 “DR Congo legislative results lack credibility: Carter Centre”, StarAfrica.com, February 24, 2012, at http:// www.starafrica.com/en/news/detail-news/view/dr-congo-legislative-results-lack-credib-219908.html “EU says Congo election “not credible”’, The Guardian, March 30, 2012, at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/ feedarticle/10170691 “’Serious violations’ by DR Congo forces in vote period: UN”, AFP, March 20, 2012, at http://www.google.com/ hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5h57WxxkW_a1M1c6_wLkIzFB7x9kQ?docId =CNG.886eb52df8eb9735aee24d498123d774.2e1 “Uganda: DRC refugee influx stretching camp facilities”, IRIN News, February 27, 2012, at http:// wwws.irinnews.org/Report/94966/photodetail.aspx?ImageId=201202271116390875

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Equatorial Guinea closes border with Cameroon; France threatened of reprisal for arrest warrant issued against Obiang’s son Equatorial Guinea closed its border with Cameroon following clashes between traders and soldiers at the border village of Kye-Ossi. Guinea depends heavily on Cameroon for its supplies of goods and services.81 Meanwhile, the government warned French companies of the reprisal that they could face if Paris did not agree to cancel the arrest warrant for the son of President Teodoro Obiang Ngeuma. The French magistrates had earlier issued the warrant as part of an investigation into alleged corruption by African leaders including Obiang, Congo-Brazzaville’s President Denis Sassou Nguesso and Omar Bango, the late president of Gabon.82 GABON First ever state visit to Australia, countries to strengthen partnership The Gabonese President Ali Bongo Ondimba’s visit to Australia following a 4-day visit to South Korea marked the first ever state visit of a Gabonese President to the country. The main focus of the visit was to increase partnership between the two countries specifically in the area of capacitybuilding.83

REPUBLIC OF CONGO Series of explosions in Brazzaville

In a series of munitions explosion in Brazzaville, 292 people were killed, 2,500 injured and about 14,000 displaced.84 Following the incidents, four high-ranking army personnel were arrested. An army officer who serves on the country’s national security council is also under investigation.85 “Equatorial Guinea shuts border with Cameroon”, Africa Review, March 29, 2012, at http://www.africareview.com/ News/Equatorial+Guinea+shuts+border+with+Cameroon/-/979180/1375870/-/e0nmhk/-/ “Equatorial Guinea warns of reprisals for France after arrest warrant for President Obiang’s son”, RFI English, March 29, 2012, at http://www.english.rfi.fr/africa/20120329-equatorial-guinea-warns-reprisals-after-arrestwarrant-president-obiangs-son “Gabon: After South Korea, Gabon strengthens its ties with Australia”, AllAfrica, March 29, 2012, at http:// allafrica.com/stories/201203301068.html “Congo Brazzaville munitions explosion”, Afrique en ligne, April 3, 2012, at http://www.afriquejet.com/congobrazzaville-munitions-explosion-2012040336241.html “4 army officers arrested after Congo blasts”, The Washington Times, April 11, 2012, at http:// www.washingtontimes.com/news/2012/apr/11/briefly-four-congo-army-officers-arrested-after-bl/?page=all

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Sao Tome recognizes Kosovo; World Bank donates US$ 4.2 million Sao Tome and Principe became the 89th country to recognise Kosovo.86 Meanwhile, the World Bank through the International Financial Association provided Sao Tome and Principe with US$

4.2 million as direct budgetary aid. In 2013 and 2014, the country would receive the same amount of donation.87


West African police chiefs recommend operations against transnational crime; ECOWAS chiefs of defence meet on sub regional security West African police chiefs met in the first of two preparatory meetings ahead of the West Africa Police Chiefs Committee (WAPCCO) General Assembly to be held in June 2012, and recommended various police operations against transnational crimes including drug and human trafficking, and illegal circulation of small and light weapons. According to recommendations, seven countries

- Togo, Benin, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso – will participate in pilot operations. The meeting also urged ECOWAS member states to intensify efforts to inform national stakeholders on law enforcement based on INTERPOL tools and ECOWAS legal instruments on security.88 A meeting of chiefs of defence of ECOWAS member states met in the last week of February to fine-tune an overall plan to meet new challenges to security and stability in the West African region. The meeting focused on the Boko Haram threat in Nigeria, the Tuareg rebellion in the north of Mali, and destabilisation in the Gulf of Guinea region. The new ECOWAS Chairman, President Alassane Ouattara has made sub regional security a priority of his mandate.89 COTE D’IVOIRE Ivorian president expects “friendly and cooperative” ties with North Korea President Alassane Ouattara welcomed the new North Korean ambassador to Cote d’Ivoire, Jong Hak Se, on his appointment, and congratulated Kim Jong-un on his election to the top post of the Korean Workers’ Party. Ouattara expressed expectation that the friendly and cooperative relations between the two countries would grow stronger.90 “Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe is 89th country to recognize Kosovo”, Focus News, March 17, 2012, at http://www.focus-fen.net/index.php?id=n273504 “World Bank provides Sao Tome and Principe with US $4.2 million”, Macauhub.com, April 11, 2012, at http:// www.macauhub.com.mo/en/2012/04/11/world-bank-provides-sao-tome-and-principe-with-us4-2-million/ “West African police to launch pilot operations against transnational crime”, Daily Trust website, Abuja, March 27, “West African ECOWAS military chiefs fine-tune security plan for subregion”, Le Patriote website, Abidjan, February 27, 2012 “Ivorian president upbeat on friendly ties with North Korea”, KCNA website, Pyongyang, April 23, 2012

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