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«Air pollution in Atlantis There has been a general improvement in local air quality in Atlantis since the 1990s. But there are still problems in ...»

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Improving public awareness of this would also be of benefit.

Text combines real and fictional data, names and stories – valid only for discussion at SoE workshop!

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Air In the year XXX air quality tests were performed in more than 50 cities of Narnia. They demonstrated concentration of harmful substances exceeding the norm in 30 cities, which are home to more than 10 mln people, i.e. over half of the whole population of the country.

Unfortunately these are not single-off cases as the level of air pollution is intolerably high. There are regions, where breathing becomes dangerous for human health as air pollution exceeds the norm by 10 times. As a rule, the air is polluted with nitrogen dioxide, carbon sulphide and formaldehyde. Carbon sulphide is more often emitted by industrial enterprises, whereas the source of nitrogen dioxide is auto transport.

Major part of the population of Narnia lives in cities and industrial centres. So a question about air quality there seems to be quite natural. Air quality was tested in 10 cities in the central zone of Narnia. Only 5 out of them had air quality within the norm with the capital of the country being the most unfavourable location (about 3 mln people, i.e. half of urban population, breathe polluted air). In the south of Narnia air quality was tested in 20 cities. Out of this number concentration of harmful contaminants exceeded MPC in 15 cities and high level of pollution was observed in 5 cities with the total population of 10 mln people.

Maximum concentrations of 10 MPC were registered in 2 cities. Only in the northern part of Narnia with minimum industrial facilities the situation is relatively favourable.

The danger of air pollution with lead remains quite relevant and not only for those who live next to the battery factory or integrated mining works. In many cities auto transport is the main source of lead in the air. Lead is not only toxic, but can accumulate in the body. The problem of mercury is very similar to the problem of lead. Out of 100 tons, which fall out in Narnia annually, local sources account for 5 tons, which is only 5%. The remaining 95% result from transboundary transfer – blown by the wind as they say.

*** Air quality in urban areas of Palmyra country The following characteristics of air pollution are used to determine the level of

pollution:

 mean concentration of contaminants, mg/m3  one-time maximum permissible concentration of a contaminant, mg/m3 Air pollution is determined by values of average and one-time maximum permissible concentration of contaminants. Degree of pollution is generated by comparison of factual concentration against MPC, where MPC is the maximum permissible concentration of contaminants for settlements. Average concentrations are compared against average daily MPC (MPC a. d.) and one time maximum permissible concentration – max MPC.

Air quality indicators:

API – integrated air pollution index, which considers several contaminants. API is calculated on the basis of mean annual concentration values.

According to the data of Hydromet, the level of air pollution in 30 cities of Palmira (60% of urban population) is characterized as high and very high. In Oblast XXX 4 cities have high or very level of pollution, in Oblasts YYY and ZZZ – 5 cities in each Oblast.

Text combines real and fictional data, names and stories – valid only for discussion at SoE workshop!

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Accounting of air quality factors, especially in settlements, is an important element for development of the social and economic policy. It provides for evaluation of the state of the environment regarding air quality as well as negative impact of high concentration of pollutants in the ground atmospheric layer on human health, vegetation and materials.

Meteorological conditions of this country are characterized by high frequency of ground and raised inversions, low average annual and monthly wind speeds, which are often followed by standstill periods, low relative air humidity and annual volume of precipitation as well as high intensity of ultraviolet radiation. Climate and geographic aspects of the region combined with man-made pollution sources affect air pollution level especially in big cities with high density of population, transport traffic and environmentally harmful facilities. All these factors also impact the state of human health. Another atmospheric event that impacts the level of air pollution is smallest particles of loess dust. Capital region of Osiris is characterized by high climate air pollution potential (CAPP = 3,4 – 3,6) and low self-cleaning capacity according to the combination of meteorological factors and their quantitative correlation. Therefore, even Text combines real and fictional data, names and stories – valid only for discussion at SoE workshop!

minor emissions of harmful substances can cause high level of air pollution, especially in winter. A share of urban population affected by concentration of pollutants exceeding permissible limits of air quality norms is 70%.

Emissions from stationary sources are monitored by various agencies. Departmental monitoring is ensured at ten biggest enterprises of Osiris with the total number of 30 enterprises covered by air quality monitoring. About 25 pollutants are measured in emissions.

Air quality monitoring is performed in 15 cities (70% of urban population of the country) at 25 stationary posts (control posts for air pollution level). They are located in residential areas, next to main sources of pollution and in the central part of the city. The working programme of each post is individually developed according to its location, proximity to sources of emissions and their composition. Air pollution observations are performed 3 times a day.

Observations posts are physically and morally outdated and operate in manual mode.

Evaluation of the level of air pollution is based on the value of integrated air pollution index (API), which is calculated for all cities where air quality monitoring is provided. Air pollution is very high if total API exceeds 14; high - 14API7, relatively high - 7API5 and low - API

5. In Osiris high level of air pollution by API is observed only in Avatar.

Five pollutants are detected in atmospheric air of the cities: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and dioxide, formaldehyde and ammonia. Average daily and one time maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) are considered for air quality evaluation.

(number of days per year with MPC exceeding the limit for nitrogen dioxide in cities) Sulfur dioxide. Observations data show low level of air pollution with sulfur dioxide in all cities from 2000 to 2014. Average daily and one-time maximum concentrations are significantly lower than MPC.

Nitrogen dioxide. Observations data show elevated level of air pollution with nitrogen dioxide in XXX city within the period from 2006 to 2011. Average annual concentrations in the city of XXX were within the range of 1,25 – 1,75 MPC, one-time MPC – within the range of 3,6 – 6,0 MPC. In residential area of the city average annual concentration of nitrogen dioxide was within the range of 0,5 – 1,25 MPC, maximum concentration - within the range of 1,2 – 1,8 MPC. Average annual occurrence of contaminants concentrations exceeding one-time maximum permissible concentration (MPC one time max) in the city was 16-29%.

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Text combines real and fictional data, names and stories – valid only for discussion at SoE workshop!

From 2007 – 2009, pollution of atmospheric air was monitored by Hydromet in 30 cities and rayons, including monitoring performed by laboratories of industrial enterprises in 10 cities and sanitary and epidemiological service in 4 cities. Air Pollution Index (API) is an integrated indicator that characterizes the level of air pollution by substances with the highest concentration considering their hazard class. The level of air pollution is determined as very high if API exceeds 14, high – API is within the range from 14 to 7, elevated – within the range from 7 to 5, and low – below 5. In the majority of Cottonia cities the level of air pollution is low, except for XXXX and YYYY, where it is elevated.

(Air Pollution Index (API) by cities) At the same time, the level of air pollution for some components exceeds sanitary norms.

For example, concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the capital was within the range of 1,3 – 2,0 MPC, in Malpensa – 1,5 MPC (in 2007) and in Majorca – 1,3 MPC. The sources of air pollution are about 1500 big and mid-size industrial enterprises with more than 80 000 stationary sources of pollution that emit over 100 harmful substances into the air. However, the main air polluter in the country is auto transport, which accounts for more than 65% of emissions volume.

Over the last 6 years, the overall trend of air pollution is decreasing. But despite reduction of industrial air pollution, in some cities and regions its quality didn’t approve as the volume of emissions from mobile sources went up.



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