«1 Introduction Information about Hebrew type and typesetting is available, but hard to find. Information about the design and use of typefaces and ...»
ÆÍ¢˘˙ ¨ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨‰Ò„‰ È„ÂÓÈÏ ÒÂÙ„ ˙Â¯ÙÒÂ ˙ÂÈ˙Â‡ ÏÚ ÆÈ¯ ‰ ¨¯„ Ï„È¯Ù  Henri Friedlaender. [Book Craft]. Hadassah Printing School, Jerusalem, 1962.
Æ·¢Î˘˙ ¨ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨‰Ò„‰ È„ÂÓÈÏ ÒÂÙ„ Æ¯ÙÒ ˙Î‡ÏÓ Æ¯„ Ï„È¯Ù È¯ ‰ I have not yet seen these two items.
 [The typography of our childrens’ books—existing and desired]. Sifrut Yeladim Vanoar. 21(2):15–21, 1995.
–±µ∫®ß·©‡¢Î ¨¯ÚÂ Â ÌÈ„ÏÈ ˙Â¯ÙÒ ÆÈÂˆ¯Â ÈÂˆÓ—Â Ï˘ ÌÈ„ÏÈ‰ ˙Â¯ÙÒ· ‰ÈÙ¯‚ÂÙÈË‰ ÆÈ˙Ó¯‰ ‰ÓÏ˘ ±ππµ ¨≤± This article discusses readability in Hebrew and factors that affect readability in general. It explains why Hebrew is less readable than latin languages and compares teh readability of a few Hebrew types (FRANK-RUHL, MIRYAM, and HAIM). Haramati makes a few suggestions regarding readable page layouts.
 Stephen Lubell. Bilingualism in the Hebrew Text. Visible Language, 27(1–2):162This article discusses Bilingualism in Hebrew text both from the linguistic point of view and from the typesetting point of view. The main issues discussed in the section on typesetting are whether to translate foreign phrases or to leave them in the original, and the correct typesetting of foreign words and phrases in a Hebrew text. The typesetting of numerical ranges, such as years or page numbers, is also briefly. discussed. The article also includes reproductions of pages that contain both Hebrew and other languages, both historical and modern.
 Stephen Lubell. Hebrew typography—from the sacred to the mundane.
Typo/graphic Journal (Journal of the Society of Typographic Designers), number 41, pages 16–23, 1990.
I have not yet seen this item.
 Simon Prais. Design Considerations Affecting the Simultaneous Use of Latin and Hebrew Typography. Master Thesis, Manchester Polytechnic, 1985. With a short introduction by Berthold Wolpe.
This thesis is intended to be a design aid for those designing documents that contain text in both the Hebrew and Latin alphabets. The thesis discusses many issues in Hebrew/Latin typography and contains specific recommendations. Most of the recommendations are based on discussions that Prais had with typographers and Designers, including Zvi Narkiss, Meir Doron, Eliyahu Koren, Elly Gross, John Tomkins, and Yarom Vardimon. The discussions in an appendix.
The main part of the thesis is devoted to discussions of the issues arising in the design of different kinds of mixed texts, such as headlines, translations, and so on.
Prais proposes that when matching typefaces, the Latin typeface should have heavier lines than the Hebrew to match in color, since the Hebrew letter has shorter lines. Latin typefaces should have x-heights slightly lower than the height of Hebrew letters, except when the latin is set in all caps, in which case the cap height should match the Hebrew. Specific typeface combinations that he proposes are NARKISS CHADASH and ANTIQUE OLIVE, NARKISSIM and SOUVENIR, HADASSAH and CONGRESS, DAVID and QUORUM, FRANK RÜHL and BENGUIAT, MIRIAM and NEWS GOTHIC, CHAIM and HELVETICA. He mentions that Eliyahu Koren suggested the use of KOREN with KORINNA. He proposes the use of old-style numerals in Hebrew; he states that all Israeli typographers initially dismissed the idea. (some Hebrew typefaces, such as Koren, are sold today with old-style numerals.) He recommends that only one set of numerals be used in mixed texts. He explains the issues that affect the slant direction of inclined Hebrew letters and lists the opinions of the various typographers that he interviewed (they were not in complete agreement on this issue). He explains that dropped large letters are more suitable in Hebrew than standing large initials.
Prais writes that Hebrew needs less leading than English and that vowel points improve the uniformity of the color of Hebrew type.
The thesis also contain a fairly detailed discussion of the typeface CHAIM, based on a meeting with the designer, Jan LeWitt, who told Prais that he disapproves of the question mark, which was not designed by him.
Prais also summarized Schonfield’s ideas , which prais considers to be wrong.
Several of Schonfield’s typefaces are reproduced.
 Hugh Joseph Schonﬁeld. The new Hebrew typography, with an introduction by Stanley Morison and numerous types designed by the author and drawn by Bertram F.
Stevenson. D. Archer, London, 1932.
I have not seen this book. An attempt to develop romanized Hebrew type. Henri Friedlaender writes that he received this book from Stanley Morison and that Schonfield’s main thesis is wrong, but that the book influenced his decision to create a whole family of fonts rather than a single one. Prais summarizes the book and reproduce some of Schonfield’s typefaces.
 Gershon Silberberg with contributions by Moshe Spitzer, Meir Ben-Yehuda, Shmuel Perez, and Arie Lotan. Principles of Printing. Irgun Mifale ha-Defus beYisrael, Tel Aviv, 1968.
˙¯Â˙ ÆÔËÂÏ ‰È¯‡Â ¨ı¯Ù Ï‡ÂÓ˘ ¨‰„Â‰È–Ô· ¯È‡Ó ¨¯ˆÈÙ˘ ‰˘Ó ˙ÂÙ˙˙˘‰· ¨‚¯·¯·ÏÈÒ ÔÂ˘¯‚ Æ·¢Î˘˙ ¨·È·‡–Ï˙ ¨Ï‡¯˘È· ÒÂÙ„‰ ÈÏÚÙÓ ÔÂ‚¯‡ ÆÒÂÙ„‰ This is a essentially a textbook for typography, book design, and printing. It includes Spitzer’s article  on Hebrew typefaces. The book covers many issues in Hebrew typography, including the following.
• Punctuation in Hebrew. The main difference from English is the use of quotes for acronyms and the fact that Hebrew uses typewriter-style quotes, ¢ and ß.
• A brief discussion of word division (hyphenation).
• Typesetting vowel, cantillation, and other diactirical marks. Some issues are discussed in detail, including the use of two types of vav with a holam, the correct use of alef after a holam, and the interaction of a holam with a shin-dot (the book specifies a different solution than Koren ).
Note that the difference between the two kinds of vav with holam cannot be represented in Unicode. (One kind represents the vowel “o” and the other the sound “vo”. They differ graphically by a different placement of the holam.)
• A discussion of fonts for emphasis and for titles. The book suggests the use of bold face for emphasis (the bold weight of FRANK-RÜHL, the main Hebrew text face, was new when the book was written). Before bold weights were available, emphasis was achieved either by using a different typeface or by letter spacing.
• The use of Hebrew initials.
Includes a bibliography.
 Erhardt D. Stiebner. Sefer Ha-Defus. In Hebrew, a translation and adaptation of Bruckmann’sHandbuchderDrucktechnik, originally published by Bruckmann, 1976.
Translated by Gideon Stern. National Printing Union, Tel-Aviv, 1992.
¨ÒÂÙ„‰ È„·ÂÚ Ï˘ Èˆ¯‡‰ „Â‚È‡‰ ÆÔ¯Ë˘ ÔÂÚ„‚ ˙È Ó¯‚Ó Ì‚¯˙ ÒÂÙ„‰ ¯ÙÒ Æ¯ ·ÈË˘ ß„ Ë„¯‰¯‡ Æ±ππ≤ ¨·È·‡–Ï˙ Includes a chapter on Hebrew typography by Zvi Narkiss. Discusses hebrew typefaces, emphasizing text, combining Hebrew and non-Hebrew text.
 Ittai Joseph Tamari, Hebraische typographie des Schocken verlags. In Der Schocken-Verlag/Berlin: Judische Selbstbehauptung in Deutschland 1931-1938, Saskia Schreuder, and Claude Weber, editors, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1994. Pages 327–344.
Describes the typography of books published by Schocken in Germany.
6 Computer Typesetting of Hebrew
This section lists publications that describe the technical issues that are involved in computer typesetting of Hebrew. At a very basic level most typesetting programs can handle Hebrew by reflecting their output, given appropriate fonts. Handling bidirectional text is more complex, because some of the text flows from right to left and some from left to right. At the next level are programs that can correctly place vowel points, and programs that can place both vowel and cantillation marks. Another important issue is word division in Hebrew (hyphenation). Unfortunatly, I have not found any discussion of hyphenation algorithms or Hebrew hyphenation in general, except for a short discussion in . This section also includes references to the Unicode standard, a character set standard, to online specification of a few older Hebrew character set encodings that are still in use, and to AFII, a glyph encoding standard, The Unicode standard  and two Apple manuals ,  provide good introductions to typesetting of so-called “complex scripts”, which include Hebrew.
Placement of Hebrew diacritical marks is also discussed in a few publications listed in other sections. Koren  and Silberberg  discuss correct layout of Hebrew with vowel and cantillation marks. Narkiss  remarks that he designed a program for placement of vowel points, but gives no details.
The publications that are listed in this section are all technical documents that describe in some detail how Hebrew is typeset. In addition to the programs described by these papers, there are many other programs can typeset Hebrew.
These include word processors, page layout programs, and drawing programs such as Qtext, Eistein, Dagesh, Hebrew Word, Accent, NisusWriter, QuarkXpress, PageMaker, FreeHand and Corel Draw.
 The Association for Font Information Interchange (AFII). A registry of glyphs available in electronic and printed formats. AFII Registrar, PO Box 33683, Northglen, CO 80233-0683, aﬁi@ix.netcom.com, http://www.rit.edu/ aﬁi.
AFII is a registry of glyphs approved by ISO in the standard ISO 10036 — Information technology — Font information interchange — Procedure for registration of glyph and glyph collection identifiers. Adobe uses AFII identifiers to encode glyphs for which no standard Postscript names exist, which includes all the Hebrew letters and marks. For example, adobe recommends that fonts that include the Hebrew letter aleph name the glyph afii57664, since the the AFII reference number for aleph is 57664.
 Apple Computer. Inside MacIntosh: Text. Addison-Wesley, 1993. Also available online from http://devworld.apple.com.
 Apple Computer. Inside MacIntosh: Quickdraw GX Typography. Addison-Wesley,
1994. Also available online from http://devworld.apple.com.
These technical manual, and especially their introductions, provide a good general introduction to the issues involved in typesetting complex scripts, including bidirectionality and diacritical points.
 Daniel Berry. Stretching letter and slanted-baseline formatting for Arabic, Hebrew, and Persian with DITROFF/FFORTID and dynamic PostScript Fonts. Technical Report, Computer Science Department, The Technion, 1997.
The paper presents a system for typesetting with stretchable letters. Letter stretching is common in Hebrew calligraphy and it was used in print at least until the 1930’s as a justification mechanism, using wide letters. The system is an improved version of an earlier system (J. Srouji and D. M. Berry, Arabic formatting with DITROFF/FFORTID, Electronic Publishing, Origination, Dissemination, and Design, 5(4):163-208, 1992). Since the new system relies on fonts with letters that stretch, it allows for an arbitrary amount of stretching (as opposed to the first system that used an integral number of horizontal connecting glyphs) and for stretching letter parts that are not horizontal. The improvement is less significant for Hebrew than for Arabic and Persian, since in Hebrew the stretching is always of a horizontal part. The system also allows for a slanted baseline in Persian.
 Cary Buchman, Daniel M. Berry, and Jakob Gonczarowski. DITROFF/FFORTID, an adaptation of the UNIX/DITROFF for formatting bidirectional text. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 3(4):380-397, 1985.
The paper describes a system for typesetting bidirectional text, based on the Unix DITROFF (Device-Independent TROFF) formatter. The system uses a preprocessor to perform character set conversion, and a postprocessor that reverses the order of text set in font that are designated as a right-to-left font.
 Yannis Haralambous. Typesetting the Holy Bible in Hebrew, with TEX. TUGboat, 15(3):174–191, 1994. Also appeared in the Proceedings of EuroTEX 1994, Gda«sk, 1994.
 Yannis Haralambous. “Tiqwah”: a typesetting system for biblical Hebrew, based on TEX. Bible et Informatique, 4:445–470, 1995.
Haralambous describes a system for typesetting biblical Hebrew. The paper describes in details the algorithm that is used by the system for placement of vowel and diacritical marks. The paper also lists all the typographical oddities that are found in the Hebrew bible, including inverted letters, raised letters, letters that are too small or too large, final forms in the middle of the word and vice versa, and more. (In the Jewish tradition, some of these oddities are considered typos and are merely allowed, while others are believed to convey some meaning and are required.) The placement algorithm and the list of oddities, which is essentially a specification for biblical typesetting, are perhaps the two most important contribution of the paper.
The system includes a font with all the symbols required for typesetting bibles, including letters, several styles of vowel points and cantillation marks, and other specialized symbols. The system also includes a cursive RASHI font that is often used for commentaries. Haralambous’s main font is based on a square 19th century typeface.
 Donald Knuth and Pierre MacKay. Mixing right-to-left texts with left-to-right texts.
TUG Boat, 8(1):14–25, 1987.
The paper describes an extension, called TeX-XeT, to Knuth’s TeX typesetting program that can typeset mixed right-to-left and left-to-right text. Knuth and MacKay’s implementation has since been superseded by a new implementation that produces standard TeX output, due to Peter Breitenlohner.
 The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard Version 2.0. Published by AddisonWesley, 1996. Parts of the standard are available online at http://www.