«1 Introduction Information about Hebrew type and typesetting is available, but hard to find. Information about the design and use of typefaces and ...»
Unicode is a 16-bit character set standard designed to encode most of the languages of the world. Unicode encodes the Hebrew letters, vowel points, cantillation marks, and punctuation specific to Hebrew. The vowel points and cantillation marks are combining characters in the Unicode terminology, which means that they are supposed to combine with letters without taking space in the horizontal direction. Unicode also specifies bidirectional behavior: directionality is a property of characters that is used by a bidirectional display algorithm.
Hebrew is encoded by Unicode character block 0590–05FF which includes letters, vowel and other pronunciation marks, cantillation marks, punctuation specific to Hebrew, and Yiddish digraphs. Unicode character block FB1E–FB4F encodes an additional diacritical mark, letters that are precombined with diacritical marks, the ligature aleph-lamed, wide variants of several characters, and a Hebrew form of the plus sign.
Mappings between Unicode and several 8-bit Hebrew encodings, including IBM Code Page 862, Apple’s MacOS Hebrew encoding, ISO 8859-8, and Microsoft’s Code Page 1255, are available from the Unicode Consortium web site.
7 Exhibition Catalogs
This section lists catalogs of exhibitions of Hebrew Typography, mainly exhibition of fine books. They are included in this bibliography because they can help readers find examples of well-printed Hebrew books.
One catalog of an exhibition of Hebrew typefaces  is listed in Section 2 and is omitted from here.
 Jewish National and University Library. Dr.MosheSpitzer:Books,Typography,Design.
An exhibition catalog in Hebrew and English with an introductory article  by Israel Soifer. H. J. Katzenstein, Editor. Jerusalem, 1981.
‚ÂÏË˜ Æ·ÂˆÈÚ ¨˙ÂÈ˙Â‡ ¨ÌÈ¯ÙÒ ∫¯ˆÈÙ˘ ‰˘Ó ¯¢„ ÆÌÈÏ˘Â¯È· È‡ËÈÒ¯·È Â‡‰Â ÈÓÂ‡Ï‰ ÌÈ¯ÙÒ‰ ˙È· ¨ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ÆÍ¯ÂÚ ¨ÔÈË˘ ˆ˜ ·˜ÚÈ Æ¯ÙÂÒ Ï‡¯˘È ˙‡Ó ‰Ó„˜‰ ÌÚ ˙ÈÏ‚ ‡Â ˙È¯·Ú· ‰ÎÂ¯Ú˙ Æ‡¢Ó˘˙ The catalog lists books designed by Spitzer and displays sample pages from some.
 Jewish National and University Library. An Exhibition of Hebrew Bibliophilic Books.
Y. Yudlov, editor and curator. Jerusalem, 1972.
¨·ÂÏ„ÂÈ ßÈ ÆÌÈÈ¯·Ú ÌÈÈÏÈÙÂÈÏÈÏÈ· ÌÈ¯ÙÒ ˙ÎÂ¯Ú˙ ÆÌÈÏ˘Â¯È· È‡ËÈÒ¯·È Â‡‰Â ÈÓÂ‡Ï‰ ÌÈ¯ÙÒ‰ ˙È· Æ‚¢Ï˘˙ ¨ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È Æ¯ˆÂ‡Â Í¯ÂÚ This catalog lists Hebrew Bibliophilic books, including finely printed books.
 Leonard Singer Gold, editor. A Sign and a witness: 2,000 years of Hebrew books and illuminated manuscripts. New York Public Library and Oxford University Press, 1988.
Avrin’s essay  is the only essay on modern Hebrew typography in this volume. Also includes an extensive bibliography.
8 Professional Biographies
This section lists publications that are primarily biographies of Hebrew typographers. Short biographies of several type designers are also provided in  and .
 Defus Graph. An article on Zvi Narkiss, in Hebrew. Number 59, pages 94–98.
Æπ∏≠π¥ ÌÈ„ÂÓÚ ¨µπ ¯ÙÒÓ ÆÒÈ˜¯ È·ˆ ÏÚ ¯Ó‡Ó ÆÛ¯‚ ÒÂÙ„  William C. Fontaine. The Hadassah type at Dartmouth’s Graphic Arts Workshop in Baker Library. Dartmouth College Library Bulletin, 32(1) (New Series), 1991.
Available online at http://www.dartmouth.edu/~library/Library_ Bulletin/Nov1991/LB-N91-Fontaine.html.
Fontaine tells the story of the design of HADASSAH by Henri Friedlaender and how Dartmouth College came to own a set of 16-point Hadassah type, which was originally owned by Joseph Blumenthal’s the Spiral Press in New York.
 Stephen Lubell. Joseph Cherkassky—orientalist and typefounder. Gutenberg Gesellschaft Jahrbuch 1996, pages 222–239.
Cherkassky was head of the oriental section of Berthold AG (Typefounders) in Berlin during the 1920s, and he edited Berthold’s catalog of Hebrew typefaces .
 G. W. Ovink. Die Gesinnung des Typographen: Laudatio, anlassl. d. Verleihung d.
Gutenberg-Preises 1971 d. Stadt Mainz am 21. Juni 1971 an Henri Friedlaender.
Gutenberg-Gesellschaft, Mainz, 1973.
I have not seen this book. It is perhaps associated with the 1971 Gutenberg prize awarded to Friedlaender.
 Israel Soifer. Henri Friedlaender: New approach to type. Publishers’ Weekly, (1 July 1968):74-75.
I have not seen this article. Cited by Fontaine .
 Israel Soifer. The pioneering work of Moshe Spitzer. An introductory article in English and Hebrew in . Reprinted from The Penrose Annual, 63, 1970.
Æ¯ˆÈÙ˘ ‰˘Ó Ï˘ ˙ÈˆÂÏÁ‰ Â˙„Â·Ú Æ¯ÙÂÒ Ï‡¯˘È The article describes Spitzer’s work as a publisher and book designer, his contribution to the design of several Hebrew typefaces, and other contributions to fine Hebrew printing.
 Israel Soifer. Henri Friedlaender: Book designer. Ariel: A Quarterly Review of Arts and Letters in Israel, 33–34:131–140, 1973.
This professional biography of Friedlaender was published in conjunction with an exhibition of his work earlier the same year at the Israel Museum, entitled “Henri Friedlaender: Typography and Lettering”.
 Standard, Paul. Henri Friedlaender: A Koch pupil who brings his master’s reﬂective spirit to the Dutch book arts. Print: A Quarterly Journal of the Graphic Arts, 5(2):15Reprinted in Hebrew in Olam Ha-Defus, volume 4, number 1/37, January 1961, pages 4–5.
The article describes the early part of Friedlaender’s career and displays examples of his Calligraphy, book design, and preliminary designs of his typeface HADASSAH.
 Robert Ranc. Henri Friedlaender. Arts et Techniques Graphiques, 85:3-26, 1972.
I have not seen this article. Cited by Fontaine .
 Walter Remy. Henri Friedlaender und das Hohenlied ein Gruss Zum 80 Geburtstag Edition Curt Visel, Memmingen, 1984. Pages 43–55. In Illustration 63–Jg.21,Heft 2 (August 1984) I have not seen this publication.
 Ilana Valdman. Henri Friedlaender: A print and book artist and his contribution to ﬁne Hebrew printing. In Hebrew, with a title and
in English. Master’s thesis, School of Library, Archive and Information Studies, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1993.
¯‡Â˙Ï ¯Ó‚ ˙„Â·Ú Æ‰‡ ‰ È¯·Ú‰ ÒÂÙ„Ï Â˙ÓÂ¯˙Â ¯ÙÒÂ ÒÂÙ„ ÔÓ‡ ∫¯„ Ï„È¯Ù È¯ ‰ ÆÔÓ„ÏÂ ‰ ÏÈ‡ Æ„¢ ˘˙ ÆÌÈÏ˘Â¯È· ˙È¯·Ú‰ ‰ËÈÒ¯·È Â‡‰ ¨Ú„ÈÓÂ ˙Â‡ ÂÈÎ¯‡ ¨˙Â ¯ÙÒÏ ¯ÙÒ‰ ˙È· ¨ÍÓÒÂÓ I have not seen this work.
Acknowledgements Thanks to Stephen Lubell for comments on an early draft of the bibliography and for pointing out additional sources. Thanks to Zvi Narkiss for some detailed comments illustrated by type specimens.