FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, documentation, books

Pages:     | 1 ||

«1 Introduction Wisdom and sapience have been traditionally considered desirable traits in humans, but the use of the terms is decaying perhaps due to ...»

-- [ Page 2 ] --

Valuable engineering efforts are those oriented toward a clarification of the role that architecture plays in control systems and how is it possible to attain constructabiliy of complex systems by means of scalable design patterns. This approach is specially well captured in the multiresolutional approach fostered by the control design pattern that Meystel calls the elementary loop of functioning (Meystel, 2003). Of importance in relation with the ASys theory of meaning is the incorporation of value judgment mechanisms over this elementary loop (see Figure 7).

The elementary loop of functioning, when applied hierarchically, generates a multiresolutional ladder of meanings specifically focused on the controllable subspace of each control level. This approach partitions both the problem of meaning generation and the problem of action determination, leading to hierarchical control structures that have interesting properties of self-similarity.

This core design pattern approach is extended in the concept of a control node of the RCS control architecture (Albus, 1992) (see Figure 7). Beyond the model of the world and the sensing and acting units, this architecture considers the existence of a A real-time agent system perspective of meaning and sapience 9 value judgment unit that evaluate both static states and dynamic states derived from hypothetical plan execution.

–  –  –

Fig. 8. The basic RCS node interchanges sensory and command flows with upper and lower nodes. While this may be considered meaningful flows, their meaning —sensu stricto— is limited to the originating node (Albus and Barbera, 2005).

6 Sapience: Generating other’s meanings To go to the core issue of the problem, i.e. the nature of sapience, we interpret it as the capability of generating meanings for others. Sapient agents can interpret the state of affairs and generate meanings that are valuable for other agents, i.e. like those generated by value judgment engines that are transpersonal. The attribution of sapience is social in the sense that it happens when the sapient agent is able to generate meanings that are socially valid, i.e. valid not only for one agent but for a group of agents.

Generating meanings that are valid for more that one agent is beyond normal agent capabilities. That makes sapient agents really special.

To some extent, sapient systems can voluntarily select and use shared ontologies (that are used by others) and prediction engines to generate meanings that are valid for them. This capability of shared ontology selection and use is largely sought (Mizoguchi and Ikeda, 1996) in present-day research on distributed information systems (see for example the efforts related with the semantic web).

10 Ricardo Sanz, Julita Bermejo, Ignacio L´ pez, Jaime G´ mez o o Beyond the meaning calculation fact, sapient systems do usually manifest themselves by means of their explanatory capabilities; i.e. they can communicate the results of the calculation to the target agent. This may be seen as clearly rejecting those fashionable accounts of sapience as obscure manifestations of mental capability. Explanation is hence strongly related with the perception of sapience (see (Craik, 1943), (Brewer et al., 1998) or (Wilson and Keil, 1998)).

Obviously this vision is strongly related with the psychology concept of “theories of mind” but goes well beyond it in the sense that the “theory of mind” is typically restricted to agent-to-agent interaction.

This view of sapience can be implicit or explicit (when the sapient system uses consciously the model of the other to calculate meanings). It is like having ‘deliberative’ sapience.

7 Meanings in hive minds Of major interest for us, that focus our research in the domain of complex distributed controllers, is the capability of exploiting this sapience mechanics to improve the integration level of a distributed controller.

We may wonder to what extent meaning integration can lead to mind federation and the emergence of a single, unified controller: a hive mind. If meaning is globally integrated this implies that the different subsystems may be aware of what is going on affecting other subsystems. A kind of distributed consciousness emerges.

Some people have considered the possibility of shared or collective consciousness even for humans (see for example Hardy (1998), Sheldrake (1988) or Laszlo (1996)).

From this perspective, individuals can conjointly share a particular experience even being at distance.

People dealing with practically independent environments, can use other’s previous experiences in similar situations to better understand the present state of affairs. These previous experiences are culturally shared and when executed over similar virtual machines (Sloman and Chrisley, 2003) can generate similar interpretations of reality that coalesce into coherent social behaviors that can be seen as a form of collective understanding.

Perhaps we can exploit this kind of social phenomena in the implementation of advanced cognitive conscious modular controllers.

8 Conclusions

Agent’s meanings are not static interpretations of agent-perceived data but do capture future trajectories of the agent in his state space in a particular context. This is strongly related to Putnam’s causal theory of meaning (Putnam, 1975).

Sapient systems are agents that have the capability to generate meanings for others, i.e. they can assess situations as other agents would do and suggest courses of action based on other agents’ set of values.

A real-time agent system perspective of meaning and sapience 11

–  –  –

Fig. 9. Multi-agent systems can only operate if the ontologies are shared to be able to reconstruct meaning from messages coming from other agents.

Wisdom is hence nothing categorically different from what is available in conventional agent architectures but a particular capability of an agent to use its own resources to think-for-others. Wisdom in hence attributed by other’s due to this capability that goes beyond usual agent capabilities.

This understanding of meaning is strongly related with recent theories of consciousness and lead us to the possibility of achieving consciousness states in control systems (Sanz and Meystel, 2002).

This approach to explicit management of meanings is currently under implementation in the SOUL Project (http://www.aslab.org/public/projects/SOUL/) in the laboratory of the authors.

9 Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science through the DPI C3 grant and the support of the European Commission through the IST ICEA grant.

References Albus, J. S. (1992). A reference model architecture for intelligent systems design. In Antsaklis, P. and Passino, K., editors, An Introduction to Intelligent and Autonomous Control, pages 57–64. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.

Albus, J. S. and Barbera, A. J. (2005). Rcs: A cognitive architecture for intelligent multi-agent systems. Annual Reviews in Control, 29(1):87–99.

12 Ricardo Sanz, Julita Bermejo, Ignacio L´ pez, Jaime G´ mez o o Antsaklis, P. and Passino, K. E. (1993). An Introduction to Intelligent and Autonomous Control. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Brewer, W. F., Chinn, C. A., and Samarapungavan, A. (1998). Explanation in scientists and children. Minds and Machines, 8:119–136.

Clark, A. (1998). Twisted tales: Causal complexity and cognitive scientific explanation. Minds and Machines, 8:79–99.

Combs, A. (2000). Book review: Networks of meaning: The bridge between mind and matter, by Christine Hardy. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2000, 4(1):129–134.

Craik, K. (1943). The Nature of Explanation. Cambridge University Press, London.

Freeman, W. J. (1997). A neurobiological interpretation of semiotics: meaning vs. representation. In 1997 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, volume 2, pages 12–15.

Gibson, J. J. (1979). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Glenberg, A. M., Robertson, D. A., Jansen, J. L., and Johnson-Glenberg, M. C. (1999).

Not propositions. Journal of Cognitive Systems Research 1, 1:19–33.

Griswold, W. and Notkin, D. (1995). Architectural tradeoffs for a meaning-preserving program restructuring tool. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 21(4):275– 287.

Hardy, C. (1998). Networks of Meaning: The Bridge Between Mind and Matter.

Praeger/Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, CT.

Harnad, S. (1990). The symbol grounding problem. Physica D, 42:335–346.

Landauer, C. (1998). Data, information, knowledge, understanding: computing up the meaning hierarchy. In 1998 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, volume 3, pages 2255–2260.

Laszlo, E. (1996). The whispering pond. Element Books, Rockport, MA.

Mayorga, R. V. (2005). Towards computational sapience (wisdom): A paridigm for sapient (wise) systems. In IEEE International Conference on Integration of Knowledge Intensive Multi-agent Systems, Boston.

Meystel, A. (2001). Multiresolutional representation and behavior generation: How do they affect the performance of intelligent systems. In Tutorial at ISIC’2001, Mexico D.F.

Meystel, A. M. (2003). Multiresolutional hierarchical decission support systems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 33(1):86–101.

Mizoguchi, R. and Ikeda, M. (1996). Towards ontology engineering. Technical Report AI-TR-96-1, The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University.

Orden, G. C. V., Moreno, M. A., and Holden, J. G. (2003). A proper metaphysics for cognitive performance. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 7(1):49–60.

Oyama, S. (1985). The Ontogeny of Information: Developmental Systems and Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Pustejovsky, J. (1990). Perceptual semantics: the construction of meaning in artificial devices. In 5th IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, volume 1, pages 86–91.

A real-time agent system perspective of meaning and sapience 13 Putnam, H. (1975). Mind, Language and Reality. Number 2 in Philosophical Papers.

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Sanz, R. (1990). Arquitectura de Control Inteligente de Procesos. PhD thesis, Universidad Polit´ cnica de Madrid.

e Sanz, R., Mat` F., and Gal·n, S. (2000). Fridges, elephants and the meaning of auIa, tonomy and intelligence. In IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, ISIC’2000, Patras, Greece.

Sanz, R. and Meystel, A. (2002). Modeling, self and consciousness: Further perspectives of ai research. In Proceedings of PerMIS ’02, Performance Metrics for Intelligent Systems Workshop, Gaithersburg (MD), USA.

Shanon, B. (1988). Semantic representation of meaning: A critique. Psychological Bulletin, 104:7–83.

Sheldrake, R. (1988). The presence of the past. Random House, New York.

Sloman, A. and Chrisley, R. (2003). Virtual machines and consciousness. Journal of Consciosness Studies, 10(4-5):133–172.

Steels, L. (1998). The origins of syntax in visually grounded robotic agents. Artificial Intelligence, 103:133–156.

Tien, J. M. (2003). Toward a decision informatics paradigm: A real-time, informationbased approach to decision making. IEEE Transactions On Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part C: Applications and Reviews, 33(1):102–112.

Tuomi, I. (1999). Data is more than knowledge. In Proceedings of the 32nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

von Uexk¨ ll, J. (1982). The theory of meaning. Semiotica, 42(1):25–82.

u Wilson, R. A. and Keil, F. (1998). The shadows and shallows of explanation. Minds and Machines, 8:137–159.

Ziemke, T. (2002). On the epigenesis of meaning in robots and organisms. Sign Systems Studies, 30:101–111.

Ziemke, T. and Sharkey, N. E. (2001). A stroll through the worlds of robots and animals: Applying Jakob von Uexk¸ll’s theory of meaning to adaptive robots and artificial life. Semiotica, 134(1-4):701–746.

Zlatev, J. (2001). The epigenesis of meaning in human beings, and possibly in robots.

Minds and Machines, 11.

Pages:     | 1 ||

Similar works:

«UPPER EXTREMITY IMPAIRMENT Rev. 6/09 Lev.II Curriculum OBJECTIVES FOR THE UPPER EXTREMITY SECTION 1. Show how the impairment levels of the upper extremity at the hand and forearm compare to the extremity as a whole and the whole body.2. Explain the method for determining sensory loss of the fingers. 3. Explain the manner used to determine range of motion in all joints of the fingers. 4. Demonstrate the ability to determine impairment ratings for a finger and the thumb using all measurements for...»

«European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training RESEARCH PAPER No 32 Labour market outcomes of vocational education in Europe Evidence from the European Union labour force survey Labour market outcomes of vocational education in Europe Evidence from the European Union labour force survey Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2013 A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server...»

«This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee. Saylor URL: http://www.saylor.org/books Saylor.org Welcome to The Power of Selling You’re about to go on a journey that will take you to places you can’t even imagine. Think about being able to get what you want in life. While that may sound far-fetched, it’s not. You really can get what you...»

«ITEA2 Project Call 6 11025 2012 – 2015 OETCS/WP6/D6.3 Work-Package 6: “Dissemination, Exploitation and Standardization” Updated Dissemination Plan and Report Updated Project Dissemination Plan and Report (D6.3) Alexander Nitsch, Dr. Frank Golatowski, Dr. Stefan Rieger and Dr. September 2014 Peter Mahlmann openETCS This work is licensed under the openETCS Open License Terms (oOLT) dual Licensing: This page is intentionally left blank OETCS/WP6/D6.3 1 Work-Package 6: “Dissemination,...»

«Supervisory Oversight of Pension Fund Governance Mandatory Provident Fund Schemes Authority, Hong Kong, China Working Paper No. 8 August 2008 Working Paper No. 8 August 2008 SUPERVISORY OVERSIGHT OF PENSION FUND GOVERNANCE THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION OF PENSION SUPERVISORS Mandatory Provident Fund Schemes Authority, Hong Kong, China Working Paper No. 8 August 2008 ABSTRACT Supervisory Oversight of Pension Fund Governance This working paper mainly analyses the responses of IOPS members to a...»

«REVISTA dE ESTUdIOS REGIONALES Nº 93, I.S.S.N.: 0213-7585 (2012), PP. 17-41 La generación de la imagen del destino a través de las fuentes de información y comunicación turística: El caso Gallego The generation of destination’s image through tourist information and communication sources: The case of Galicia María José Andrade Suárez Universidade de A Coruña Recibido, Abril de 2011; Versión final aceptada, Noviembre de 2011. Palabras clave: Imagen turística, Fuentes de información...»

«Paper 2126-2014 ® ® SAS Enterprise Guide 5.1: A Powerful Environment for Programmers, Too! Marje Fecht, Prowerk Consulting Rupinder Dhillon, Dhillon Consulting ABSTRACT Have you been programming in SAS for a while and just aren’t sure how SAS Enterprise Guide can help you? This presentation demonstrates how SAS programmers can use SAS Enterprise Guide 5.1 as their primary interface to SAS, while maintaining the flexibility of writing their own customized code. We explore: • navigating and...»

«10 Main Do’s and Don’ts When Buying A Franchise The 10 Main Do’s and Don’ts When Buying A Franchise Investing in a franchise can be one of the most rewarding experiences for an entrepreneur, both on a personal and a professional level. But the decision is a critical and crucial one with significant short and longrange repercussions. To ensure that those turn out positive and successful – not disappointing and financially and personally draining – it helps to follow a few tried and...»

«Division Family Support OPERATION MANUAL OMTL-430 Volume IIIA KENTUCKY WORKS PROGRAM (KWP) Table of Contents R. 11/13/12 INTRODUCTION TO THE KENTUCKY WORKS PROGRAM (KWP) 4000-4199 Introduction 4000-4019 Kentucky Works Program (KWP) 4000 KWP_Participation Requirements 4005 Systems Support 4100-4139 KAMES Referral Process 4100 [KWP Spot Checks on KAMES] 4120 PROGRAM COMPONENTS 4200-4399 Countable Components 4200-4299 Educational Component for Teen Parents 4200 Vocational Educational Training 4210...»

«1 Considering Fat Shame Toward the end of fall semester in 2006, leaders from the national office of Delta Zeta sorority visited its DePauw University chapter, ostensibly to encourage the sisters in their recruitment efforts. Membership in what one unofficial survey on the campus had called the “socially awkward” Delta Zeta chapter had declined to the point that the national office was considering shutting it down. The national officers met with the thirty-five members individually,...»

«Trade More Than 2,000 ETFs Online Commission-Free* Until July 13, 2016 All trades in eligible Canadian and U.S. exchange-traded funds (ETFs) are commission-free, subject to the terms and conditions set out below. This offer is only available for the period starting June 8, 2016 and ending July 13, 2016. Please see the current list of eligible ETFs below. Eligibility Commission-free trading in eligible ETFs is available to any client who holds an account at CIBC Investor's Edge, a division of...»

«AL-USTATH No 502 Volume Two 2013 AD, 1434 AH The Biblical Influence on Stephen King’s Desperation (1996) Asst. Prof. Dr. Ismael Mohammedfahmi Saeed & Asst. Prof. Dr. Azad Hamad Sharif Department of English College of Languages Salahaddin University Synopsis: This paper demonstrates the biblical Influence on Stephen King's Desperation (DSPN). The horror-novelist Stephen King (born 1947) writes as a free thinker in the majority of his works. But, in this novel he makes use of biblical elements....»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.thesis.xlibx.info - Thesis, documentation, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.