«Is Baptism Necessary for Salvation? Is Baptism Necessary for Salvation? Even though baptism is one of the fundamental building blocks of ...»
evbaptisan th,n po,lin, Josephus, b. j. 4, 3, 3; h` avnomi,a me bapti,zei, Isa. 21:4 the Septuagint hence, bapti,zesqai ba,ptisma (cf. Winer's Grammar, 225 (211); (Buttmann, 148 (129)); cf. lou,esqai to, loutro,n, Aelian de nat. an. 3, 42), to be overwhelmed with calamities, of those who must bear them, Matt. 20:22f Rec.; Mark 10:38 f; Luke 12:50 (cf. the German etwas auszubaden haben, and the use of the word e. g. respecting those who cross a river with difficulty, e[wj tw/n mastw/n oi` pezoi, baptizo,menoi die,bainon, Polybius 3, 72, 4; (for examples see Sophocles' Lexicon under the word; also T. J. Conant, bapti,zein, its meaning and use, N.
Y. 1864 (printed also as an Appendix to their revised version of the Gospel of Matthew by the American Bible Union); and especially four works by J. W. Dale entitled Classic, Judaic, Johannic, Christic, Baptism, Phil. 1867ff;
D. B. Ford, Studies on the Bapt. Quest. (including a review of Dr. Dale's works), Bost. 1879)).
II. In the N. T. it is used particularly of the rite of sacred ablution, first instituted by John the Baptist, afterward by Christ's command received by Christians and adjusted to the contents and nature of their religion (see ba,ptisma, 3), viz., an immersion in water, performed as a sign of the removal of sin, and administered to those who, impelled by a desire for salvation, sought admission to the benefits of the Messiah's kingdom; (for patristic references respecting the mode, ministrant, subjects, etc. of the rite, cf.
Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word; Dict. of Chris. Antiq.
under the word Baptism). a. The word is used absolutely, to administer the rite of ablution, to baptize (Vulgate baptizo;
Tertullian tingo, tinguo (cf. metgiro, de corona mil. sec. 3)):
Mark 1:4; John 1:25f,28; 3:22f,26; 4:2; 10:40; 1 Cor. 1:17;
with the cognate noun to, ba,ptisma, Acts 19:4; o` bapti,zwn substantively equivalent to o` baptisth,j, Mark 6:14 (24 T Tr WH). tina, John 4:1; Acts 8:38; 1 Cor. 1:14,16.
Passive to be baptized: Matt. 3:13f,16; Mark 16:16; Luke 3:21; Acts 2:41; 8:12,13,(36); 10:47; 16:15; 1 Cor. 1:15 L T Tr WH; 10:2 L T Tr marginal reading. WH marginal reading. Passive in a reflexive sense (i. e. middle, cf.
Winer's Grammar, sec. 38, 3), to allow oneself to be initiated by baptism, to receive baptism: Luke (3:7,12);
7:30; Acts 2:38; 9:18; 16:33; 18:8 ; with the cognate noun
to, ba,ptisma added, Luke 7:29; 1 aorist middle, 1 Cor. 10:2
(L T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading evbapti,sqhsan (cf. Winer's Grammar, sec. 38, 4 b.)); Acts 22:16. followed by a dative of the thing with which baptism is performed, u[dati, see bb. below. b. with prepositions; aa.
eivj, to mark the element into which the immersion is made:
eivj to,n Iorda,nhn, Mark 1:9. to mark the end: eivj meta,noian, to bind one to repentance, Matt. 3:11; eivj to, VIwa,nnou ba,ptisma, to bind to the duties imposed by John's baptism, Acts 19:3 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 397 (371)); eivj o;noma ti,noj, to profess the name (see o;noma, 2) of one whose follower we become, Matt. 28:19; Acts 8:16; 19:5; 1 Cor. 1:13, 15; eivj a;fesin a`martiw/n, to obtain the forgiveness of sins, Acts 2:38; eivj to,n Mwush/n, to follow Moses as a leader, 1 Cor. 10:2. to indicate the effect: eivj e[n sw/ma, to unite together into one body by baptism, 1 Cor.
12:13; eivj Cristo,n, eivj to,n qa,naton auvtou/, to bring by baptism into fellowship with Christ, into fellowship in his death, by which fellowship we have died to sin, Gal. 3:27;
Rom. 6:3 (cf. Meyer on the latter passive, Ellicott on the former). bb. evn, with the dative of the thing in which one is immersed: evn tw/| Iorda,nh|, Mark 1:5; evn tw/| u[dati, John 1:31 (L T Tr WH evn u[dati, but compare Meyer at the passage (who makes the article deictic)). of the thing used in baptizing: evn u[dati, Matt. 3:11; Mark 1:8 (T WH Tr marginal reading omit; Tr text brackets evn); John 1:26, 33;
cf. Buttmann, sec. 133, 19; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 412 (384); see evn, I. 5 d. a.); with the simple dative, u[dati, Luke 3:16; Acts 1:5; 11:16. evn pneu,mati a`gi,w|, to imbue richly with the Holy Spirit (just as its large bestowment is called an outpouring): Matt. 3:11; Mark 1:8 (L Tr brackets evn);
Luke 3:16; John 1:33; Acts 1:5; 11:16; with the addition kai, puri, to overwhelm with fire (those who do not repent), i. e. to subject them to the terrible penalties of hell, Matt.
3:11. evn ovno,mati tou/ kuri,ou, by the authority of the Lord, Acts 10:48. cc. Passive evpi, (L Tr WH evn) tw/| ovno,mati VIhsou/ Cristou/, relying on the name of Jesus Christ, i. e.
reposing one's hope on him, Acts 2:38. dd. u`pe,r tw/n nekrw/n on behalf of the dead, i. e. to promote their eternal salvation by undergoing baptism in their stead, 1 Cor.
15:29; cf. (Winer's Grammar, 175 (165); 279 (262); 382 (358); Meyer (or Beet) at the passage); especially Neander at the passage; Rückert, Progr. on the passage, Jen. 18 47;
Paret in Ewald's Jahrb. d. Biblical Wissensch. ix., p. 247;
(cf. B. D. under the word Baptism XII. Alex.'s Kitto ibid.
VI.).* LEH Lexicon (A GREEK-ENGLISH LEXICON OF THE SEPTUAGINT, Revised edition 2003 Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart) 1597 bapti,zw w+ bapti,zw - V 0-1-1-0-2-4 2 Kgs 5,14; Is 21,4; Jdt 12,7; Sir 34,25 M: to dip oneself 2 Kgs 5,14; to wash Jdt 12,7 h` avnomi,a me bapti,zei I am imbued with transgression Is 21,4 Cf. DELLING 1970, 243-245; ïNIDNTT; TWN Lexicon (Shorter Lexicon of the Greek New GI Testament F.Wilbur Gingrich second edition) 1137 bapti,zw bapti,zw dip, immerse—1. of Jewish ritual washings, mid.
and pass, wash one's hands Mk 7:4; Lk 11:38.—2. baptize, of ritual immersion by John the Baptist and Christians Mt 3:11, 13f, 16; 28:19; Mk 6:14, 24; J 4:1f; Ac 2:38, 41;
8:12f, 36, 38; 1 Cor 1:14–17; 15:29.—3. fig. Mt 3:11; 1 Cor 10:2; 12:13. Of martyrdom Mk 10:38f. [pg 33]
Vines Expository Dictionary
Baptism, Baptist, Baptize [Verb] baptizo "to baptize," primarily a frequentative form of bapto, "to dip," was used among the Greeks to signify the dyeing of a garment, or the drawing of water by dipping a vessel into another, etc. Plutarchus uses it of the drawing of wine by dipping the cup into the bowl (Alexis, 67) and Plato, metaphorically, of being overwhelmed with questions (Euthydemus, 277 D).
It is used in the NT in Luke 11:38 of washing oneself (as in 2 Kings 5:14, "dipped himself," Sept.); see also Isaiah 21:4, lit., "lawlessness overwhelms me." In the early chapters of the four Gospels and in Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16; Acts 19:4, it is used of the rite performed by John the Baptist who called upon the people to repent that they might receive remission of sins. Those who obeyed came "confessing their sins," thus acknowledging their unfitness to be in the Messiah's coming kingdom. Distinct form this is the "baptism" enjoined by Christ, Matt 28:19, a "baptism" to be undergone by believers, thus witnessing to their identification with Him in death, burial and resurrection, e.g., Acts 19:5; Rom 6:3,4; 1 Cor 1:13-17; 1 Cor 12:13; Gal 3:27; Col 2:12. The phrase in Matt 28:19, "baptizing them into the Name" (RV; cp. Acts 8:16, RV), would indicate that the "baptized" person was closely bound to, or became the property of, the one into whose name he was "baptized."
In Acts 22:16 it is used in the Middle Voice, in the command given to Saul of Tarsus, "arise and be baptized," the significance of the Middle Voice form being "get thyself baptized." The experience of those who were in the ark at the time of the Flood was a figure or type of the facts of spiritual death, burial, and resurrection, Christian "baptism" being an antitype, "a corresponding type," a "like figure," 1 Pet 3:21. Likewise the nation of Israel was figuratively baptized when made to pass through the Red Sea under the cloud, 1 Cor 10:2. The verb is used metaphorically also in two distinct senses: firstly, of "baptism" by the Holy Spirit, which took place on the Day of Pentecost; secondly, of the calamity which would come upon the nation of the Jews, a "baptism" of the fire of Divine judgment for rejection of the will and word of God, Matt 3:11; Luke 3:16.
1. What language was the N.T. written in?
2. Why is it important to do a word study on baptism?
3. Are Lexicons infallible?
4. How did we get the English word baptism from the original Greek?
5. What are the two basic meanings of baptism?
I find it helpful to look at external sources to see how well they match up with the Bible. In this chapter, I will provide many quotes from early Christian writers who talked about baptism. These writers are not inspired and should not be treated as such. By examining these early writers, we learn what was being taught shortly after the Bible was written.
Sometimes we will find they are teaching exactly what the Bible taught, and other times we can see how they have added their own opinions. However, when it comes to baptism, these early writers agree that a person must be baptized in water, and it is essential for salvation.
(A.D. 130) Barnabas:
Let us inquire if the Lord was careful to make a revelation in advance concerning the water and the cross. Concerning the water it was written with regard to Israel how they will not receive the baptism which brings forgiveness of sins but will supply another for themselves…. Blessed are those who placed their hope in his cross and descended into the water…. We descend into the water full of sins and uncleanness, and we ascend bearing reverence in our heart and having hope in Jesus in our spirit (11:1, 8, 11).
(A.D. 130) The Shepherd of Hermas:
The tower which you see being built is myself, the church...
Hear, then, why the tower has been built on the waters. Your life.was saved and will be saved through water. The tower has been founded by the pronouncement of his almighty and glorious Name, and it is supported by the invisible power of the Master (Vision III.iii.3).
"I have heard, Sir, from some teachers that there is no other repentance except that one when we descended into the water and received the forgiveness of our former sins." He said to me, "You heard correctly, for it is so. He who has received forgiveness of sins ought to sin no more but to live in purity” (Mandate IV.iii.l).
Therefore these also who have fallen asleep received the seal of the Son of God and "entered into the kingdom of God."
For, he said, before a man bears the name of the Son of God he is dead, but whenever he receives the seal, he puts away mortality and receives life. The seal then is the water. They descend then into the water dead and they ascend alive. The seal itself, then, was preached to them also, and they made use of it in order that they might "enter into the kingdom of God."... These apostles and teachers who preached the name of the Son of God, when they fell asleep in the power and faith of the Son of God, preached also to those who had fallen asleep before them and gave to them the seal of the preaching. They descended therefore with them into the water and ascended again. The former went down alive and came up alive, but the latter who had fallen asleep previously went down dead but came up alive (Similitudes IX.xvi.3-6).
(A.D. 50–160) Didache: (Author of the writing is unknown.) Concerning baptism, baptize in this way. After you have spoken all these things, "baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," in running water. If you do not have running water, baptize in other water. If you are not able in cold, then in warm. If you do not have either, pour out water three times on the head "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." Before the baptism the one baptizing and the one being baptized are to fast, and any others who are able. Command the one being baptized to fast beforehand a day or two (Didache 7).
[Editor’s note] Even though this is an early writing, we can see how the writer has added many things compared to what the Bible says about baptism. For instance, the Bible says nothing about using cold running water or having to fast before a person is baptized. The writer also offers pouring as an alternative when immersion is not possible. However, the Bible does not give an example or even hint as such an alternative. Despite the many additions this writer has made, it confirms these early Christians believed the baptism Jesus commanded (Mt. 28:19) was to be done in water.
(A.D. 150 - 160) Justin Martyr:
We shall explain in what way we dedicated ourselves to God and were made new through Christ lest by omitting this we seem to act improperly in our explanation. As many as are persuaded and believe that the things taught and said by us are true and promise to be able to live accordingly are taught to fast, pray, and ask God for the forgiveness of past sins, while we pray and fast with them. Then they are led by us to where there is water, and in the manner of the regeneration by which we ourselves were regenerated they are regenerated.
For at that time they obtain for themselves the washing in water in the name of God the Master of all and Father, and of our Savior Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit. For Christ also said: "Unless you are generated, you cannot enter the kingdom of heaven…. Since we have been born without our knowledge or choice at our first birth from the moist seed at the union of our parents and have existed in bad habits and evil conduct, in order that we might not remain children of ignorance and necessity but become children of choice and knowledge and might obtain in the water the forgiveness of past sins, there is caIled upon the one who chooses to be regenerated and who repents of his sins the name of God The Master of all and Father…. This washing is called illumination since they who learn these things are illuminated in their understanding (Apology I, 61).
For Christ, being "the firstborn of all creation," became also the beginning again of another race, who were born again by him through water, faith, and wood (that is, the mystery of the cross) (Dialogue 138:2).