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«Diplomarbeit eingereicht von Massimo BASSI erstellt und betreut am Institut für Wildbiologie und Jagdwirtschaft Vorstand: o. Univ. Prof. Dr. Hartmut ...»

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scale auch landscape level, Betrachtungsmaßstab. Bezeichnet die raumzeitliche Erstreckung von Phänomenen, nicht das Abbildungsverhältnis auf (Land-) Karten. Charakterisiert durch extent (Ausdehnung des Untersuchungsgebietes) und grain (coarsness, Größe der patches). Der Betrachtungsmaßstab muß auf den beobachteten Prozeß (→process) abgestimmt sein: erzeugt der Prozeß ein grobkörnigeres Muster (→pattern) ist nur ein Trend erkennbar, bei zu feinkörnigem Muster ergibt sich nur ein Rauschen (Lang, 1999).

Sensitivität sensitivity (Empfindlichkeit), true positive fraction, z.B. Prozentsatz durch ein Modell richtig erkannter "Vorkommen" (presence).

Spearmansche Rangkorrelation Maß für den Zusammenhang zwischen zwei Variablen, das nicht nur den linearen Anteil mißt. Gründet sich auf Rängen.

Ist robuster als der gewöhnliche →Korrelationskoeffizient (Stahel, 2002).

SEPM Spatially Explicit Population Models (Dunning et al., 1995).

SLR Simple Linear Regression, einfache lineare Regression, siehe →LR.

SOM (Kohonen) Self-Organizing Mapping, →ANN.

spatial explicit explizit räumliche Betrachtungsweise/Beschreibung der Struktur einer Landschaft. Die spezifische räumliche Anordnung von patches wird als configuration bezeichnet. Diese bezieht sich nicht nur auf Glossar und Abkürzungsverzeichnis 101 das Verteilungsmuster, sondern zieht auch die räumlichen Attribute (z.B.

Verklumpugs- (contagion) und den Vernetzungsgrad (connectivity )) der einzelnen patches in Betracht. Ergänzung zur "traditionellen" Quantifizierung der composition ("Informationsgehalt" einer Landschaft, patches als Informationsträger, Eigenschaften: z.B. Anzahl (abundance), Verschiedenartigkeit (variability )). Zu weiteren Begriffen der landscape metrics siehe Lang (1999).

Spezifität specificity (Genauigkeit), true negative fraction, z.B. Prozentsatz durch ein Modell richtig erkannter "Nicht-Vorkommen" (absence).

–  –  –

Transformation die gebräuchlichsten Verfahren sind: →Standardisieren, Symmetrisieren (Ausgebügeln der "Schiefe", "Dämpfen" von Ausreißern, Entzerrung erfolgt z.B. durch Logarithmus-2, Wurzel-, Potenz- oder Winkel-Transformation), Normieren (Daten auf Maximalwert skaliert, sodaß alle Werte zw. 0 und 1 liegen) und Zentrieren (beziehen der Daten auf ihren Mittelwert g(x) = xi − ¯). Lineare Transformation (z.B. g(x) = a ∗ (xi − b)) zum Umrechx nen von Fahrenheit in Celsius).

Zweck der Transformation: Erleichtern der Interpretation, Linearisieren von Beziehungen, Homogenisieren von Streuungen, Anpassen an eine bestimmte Verteilungsfunktion.

Validierung validation. Prüfung der Stabilität sowie der Vorhersagegüte eines Modells (bei Inter- und Extrapolation).

WAE Weighted Averaging of Environmental variables.

–  –  –

WÖBT Wildökologischer Bestandestyp3. Vegetationsstrukturtyp mit weitgehend identer Eignung für eine Wildtierart hinsichtlich seiner primären Lebensbedürfnisse (Nahrungsangebot, Feind- und Klimaschutz, Wohnraum). Im WÖBT nicht berücksichtigt werden die Habitatfaktoren Beunruhigung, Gelände und Klima. Die Strukturtypen werden nach Typ und Höhe des Bewuchses, ihrer Schichtigkeit und ihrem Bodenbegrünungsgrad klassifiziert.

Die Einteilung orientiert sich zudem an den in der Forstwirtschaft verbreiteten Bestandesentwicklungsphasen (Wuchsklassen), was eine leichtere Zuordnung von forstwirtschaflichen Maßnahmen gewährleistet (Partl, 2001).

XPS ES, expert system, Expertensystem. In Expertensystemen werden Spezialwissen und Schlußfolgerungsfähigkeit qualifizierter Fachleute auf einem eng begrenzten Anwendungsgebiet im Computer nachgebildet. Die so entstandenen Systeme sollen Fachleute in ihrer Entscheidungsfindung unterstützen. Teildisziplin der →AI.

–  –  –

Literaturverzeichnis Abecker, A. (2000): Einstieg in Expertensysteme. http://www.dfki.uni-kl.de/˜aabecker/Mosbach/xps.pdf.

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Dissertation, Universität für Bodenkultur, Wien, Institut für Waldwachstumsforschung.

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Hirzel, A., Hausser, J. und Perrin, N. (2001a): Biomapper. http://www.unil.ch/biomapper/.

Hirzel, A., Helfer, V. und Metral, F. (2001b): Assessing habitat-suitability models with virtual species. Ecological Modelling 145: 111–121.

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Mace, R., Waller, J., Manley, T., Ake, K. und Wittinger, W. (1999): Landscape Evaluation of Grizzly bear habitat in Western Montana. Conservation Biology 13: 367–377.

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