WWW.THESIS.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, documentation, books
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 10 | 11 || 13 | 14 |   ...   | 19 |

«Martina Fischer/Ljubinka Petrović-Ziemer Forschung DSF Nº 36 Dealing with the Past and Peacebuilding in the Western Balkans1 Martina ...»

-- [ Page 12 ] --

Balancing resources of CSOs in TJ: War crimes monitoring vs. fact-finding • International and local TJ protagonists are convinced that state institutions that are in charge of war crimes prosecution need to be carefully observed and monitored now and in future. CSOs and also several politicians suggest that international actors should continue to ensure at least a minimum of monitoring of legal proceedings and justice reforms in the respective countries. In contrast, international representatives suggest and express hope that civil society actors will take on this role (see Fischer 2013a, 78), emphasising their watchdog functions. Some international interviewees are concerned that the monitoring of war crimes trials might cease altogether or become a lower priority on the agenda of human rights activists, as these have started to focus much of their energies on additional TJ mechanisms, such as the campaign for REKOM. This campaign has illustrated that CSOs in the region are able to develop a variety of activities for dealing with the past and to set up effective networking activities across countries and diverse actor groups (peace groups, human rights organisations, including women’s and youth groups, victims’ associations and veterans’ unions). However, the core group that drives the campaign consists of a small number of organisations and activists. A challenge is to further balance limited financial and human resources and expertise in the long run in a way which allows CSOs to stay involved in both the field of justice, providing monitoring of war crimes trials, and truth recovery, advancing fact-finding or story-telling activities in the scope of a REKOM. To avoid gaps, it will be necessary to forge effective alliances with independent media and journalists, and thus establish a division of labour which allows both fields to be covered. During the REKOM campaign, the CSOs involved have already proved that they can set up such cooperation and have thus created a solid basis that can be extended in future. Trial monitoring will remain an important task for CSOs in particular in settings where international oversight has ceased, i.e. in Croatia, where OSCE ended its mandate by December 2011, and 677 murders of civilians in the context of the “Storm” operation have to be investigated and prosecuted by local institutions.

Developing civil society as a realm for top-down and bottom-up initiatives • The field research revealed that there is continuous interaction among the courts in the region and that the cooperation of judicial institutions across countries has improved. The same applies to the work of the Commissions for Missing Persons (CMPs) that have also institutionalised regional collaboration. There is also close interaction and cooperation among victims’ associations and human rights activists, and all these groups also cooperate with the courts and the CMPs. Some interaction and cooperation have been observed between peace practitioners and human rights organisations (and in a very few cases, organisations combine both agendas), although this is the exception rather than the rule. There is also some ongoing cooperation among peace groups and veterans, and between peace groups and victims’ organisations. In this context, it is noteworthy that the campaign for REKOM has encouraged networking among CSOs across very diverse agendas and many countries in the region. This campaign therefore offers a great many opportunities for debate among different actors and within wider society. The question is whether it will maintain or even gain additional momentum and finally materialise as an institutionalised mechanism for documentation and dialogue on war events that is endorsed by the governments.

Initiated by local CSOs, the initiative for REKOM can be called a bottom-up initiative as it is intended to put pressure on policy-makers to establish a joint mechanism. It has received support from policy-makers in different countries, including presidents and prime ministers.

In this context, grassroots initiatives have shown a remarkable potential to dovetail with initiatives at the top level. But REKOM – although enjoying broad support in the region – has yet to be operationalised and implemented. The news that on 8 May 2012, Croatia’s President Josipović received a delegation from the REKOM coalition and announced that he will urge presidents of other countries in the region to delegate legal experts to form a joint regional team to examine each country’s constitutional and legal options for the establishment of a REKOM sounds more than encouraging.56 At the same time the course that was announced by Serbia’s new Prime Minister Ivica Dacić seems far more ambivalent.57 It remains to be seen how neighbourly relations and prospects for political reconciliation will develop under this government. It is also an open question whether the impetus and incentives that stem from the process launched by the promoters of a REKOM will link up to a joint initiative and long-term cooperation between political and civil society actors which advances dealing with the past processes and enhances political as well as cultural reconciliation in the region.

56 RECOM Initiative !Voice, 7/2012, 1.

57 Presenting his government programme on 27 July 2012, he said: "If they say the word Balkans means blood and honey, there has been enough blood. It's time that we tasted honey. Serbia is extending the hand of reconciliation to all. Let's not dwell on the past, let's think of the future. We want good relationships, with mutual respect of the independence and territorial integrity of all states".





www.aljazeera.com/news/europe/2012/07/2012726204732785480.html.

It can be concluded that initiatives at the political level and at the grassroots level still do not dovetail in a way that creates strong synergies, and thus it is questionable whether these activities can actually be captured with the terminology of “bottom-up” and “top-down” approaches, or are just undertaken as parallel endeavours. There are only occasional points of contact between them, mainly facilitated by international funding activities.

Furthermore, it can be concluded that apart from internationally facilitated ad hoc consultations (i.e. in the development of a national TJ strategy in Bosnia), there is not much institutionalised cooperation among CSOs and political actors. In all three countries under review, CSOs still have reservations about collaboration with government institutions and local authorities, although many of them express a belief that such interaction is necessary in order to advance dealing with the past and peacebuilding. At the same time, many politicians, although acknowledging the need for grassroots activities, do not become actively involved in cooperation and partnerships with CSOs. While CSOs actively strive for new alliances, politicians do not see themselves as having an obligation to take an active role in this field. It is noteworthy (and contradictory) that, although representatives of the political parties in all countries see a need for dealing with the past (and many of them even claim a leading role for state institutions in a REKOM), none of the parties has outlined explicit measures, aims or policies in their programmes, according to the analyses presented by Katarina Milićević, Ismet Seijfija and Srđan Dvornik.

For civil society to form a realm for top-down and bottom-up initiatives (White 1996, 186;

White 2004), it is important that CSO activists acknowledge that networking across levels and establishing close working relations with alliance partners in parliaments, governments and local authorities are as important as horizontal networking on the grassroots level. At the same time, policy-makers need to learn that efforts for trust-building in the region cannot simply be delegated to civil society initiatives but that they need to take measures that link up with these efforts and provide the framework for advancing peacebuilding and reconciliation at the grassroots level. The field research reveals that most of the interviewed politicians acknowledge that there is a need for reconciliation between nations and societies in the region. At the same time, they continue to see trust-building and relationship-building mainly as a challenge for civil society actors rather than a task for themselves. It is therefore important to raise awareness that restoring trust and relationships must be an explicit item on their own agenda and programmes. It is important to sensitise politicians to the fact that reconciliation needs both cultural and political approaches and cooperation across levels. Although it is not very likely that ethnonationalists can be won over to such an endeavour, there are moderate and open-minded actors in many political parties who offer the potential for cooperation. Both civil society actors and politicians operating in governments, parliaments and local authorities need to create opportunities for exchange in order to overcome mutual mistrust and advance joint learning.

Continuing but re-focusing international support • As earlier policy evaluations have outlined, in many areas where progress has been achieved, this was only as a result of international pressure, and such pressure will be necessary in order to transform the country into a self-sustaining state: “It goes without saying that the political elites of the three constituent peoples in that country would be even less willing to accept Bosnia and Herzegovina as their common state if there was no prospect of EU membership” (Calic 2005, 12).

In order to advance Bosnia with regard to the establishment of the rule of law, the European Commission established a “Structured Dialogue on Justice” in June 2011 within the framework of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA) with BiH, aiming at a participatory process to enhance reforms of the justice sector and develop and consolidate an “independent, credible, effective, efficient, impartial and accountable judiciary”.58 With regard to the National War Crimes Strategy, the Commission expresses “concern about the lack of proper implementation of most strategic objectives”, recommends that sufficient funds and human resources be allocated to the Prosecutor’s Office of BiH to properly perform its task related to exhumations, and urges the Court of BiH and Prosecutor to address problems related to delays of proceedings.

Finally, assisting the antagonistic political actors to establish a process that enables them to find a way for modifications of the constitutional framework remains a crucial challenge for international actors in Bosnia-Herzegovina. International support is needed to facilitate a process that enables the Dayton constitution to be brought into line with the standards required by the Council of Europe in a way that can be accepted by all constituencies.

Such dialogue must include all relevant political parties and as many actors from society as possible (i.e. peace practitioners and human rights activists, women’s groups, victims’ organisations, veterans’ associations, labour unions, media organisations and faith communities). Such a process should aim to increase the efficiency of state institutions in serving the needs of the citizens, no matter of their “ethnic”, or cultural, or religious affiliation. Movement in this sector is crucial for a constructive process of dealing with the past in this country. As the field research revealed, setting up legitimate and functioning state institutions that guarantee the rule of law and advancing economic development is a must and forms the basis for restoring trust and relationships, given that interviewees from all samples have stressed that a lack of security and economic perspectives forms an important obstacle to reconciliation.

However, apart from this, Bosnia’s crucial problem remains that relevant parts of the population and policy-makers who define themselves as Croat and Serb do not – or do not fully – identify with Bosnia-Herzegovina as a nation-state. It has to be taken into account that people continue to insist on separated political or educational institutions due to deep rooted fears related to the war and memories of violent events. Nevertheless, some normalisation and cooperation or even gestures of rapprochement take place on a daily life level in local communities, and there is a chance for building on such steps in order to bridge the existing borderlines. The task of trust- and relationship-building in divided local communities and contested political structures requires specific approaches. Given that different constituencies construct separate identities, lacking knowledge of and cultivating many stereotypes about each other, learning about the “others” is definitely important.

However, in order to foster this kind of learning, opportunities for cooperation in normal life situations (school, workplaces and cultural events) are needed, rather than additional dialogue projects that aim to facilitate personal encounters between individuals from 58 See Report from the Second Meeting on 10-11 November 2011 and Recommendations from the European Commission at http://www.delbih.ec.europa.eu/documents/delegacijaEU_2012022712224213eng.pdf.

different “ethnic” or “religious” constituencies in seminars. However, training sessions on conflict transformation and dealing with the past can make an important contribution to sensitising multipliers to appropriate ways of addressing different views on the past and war experiences, and help them to actively counter ethno-nationalist stereotypes and exclusive policies of remembrance in educational institutions and media.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 10 | 11 || 13 | 14 |   ...   | 19 |


Similar works:

«INVEST | 11/26/14 HOME EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES GROUPS LOGISTICS PEOPLE RESOURCES CALENDAR COURSES LOG IN INVEST InVest Faculty: Cinzia Cervato and William Gallus Graduate Student: Thomas Parham Interns: Jordan Borrell, Mandela Magnidjem, CJ Barberan We seek enthusiastic undergraduate students with a programming background, preferably in Java and/ or C ++, for an exciting program design, development, and evaluation opportunity in the earth science education domain. Over the past ten years,...»

«Members Directory of the Austrian Clothing Industry Assosiation sorted by product groups other linen Bäumler Retail GmbH 6845 Hohenems, Markus-Sittikus-Straße 20 Tel: +43/5576/903-00 Fax: +43/5576/903-01 eMail: postmaster@baeumler.com Internet: http://www.baeumler.at Manufacturer of high quality men's clothing. Brands: Dormeuil, Bäumler, CERUTTI 1881 Products: men's and boys outerwear, suits, men's shirts, men's trousers, men's jackets, men's coats, men's pullovers, men's jackets, ties,...»

«Beitrage Zur Geldtheorie: Von Marco Fanno, Marius W. Holtrop, Johan G. Koopmans, Gunar Myrdal, Knut Wicksell Friedrich Hayek In diesem Band, der ursprunglich 1933 von Friedrich A. Hayek herausgegeben wurde, sind eine Reihe von Beitragen zur Geldtheorie zusammengestellt, deren Autoren aus heutiger Sicht zu Wegbereitern der modernen Geldtheorie gezahlt werden konnen.Die Beitrage von Knut Beitrage Zur Geldtheorie: Von Marco Fanno, Marius W. Holtrop, Johan G. Koopmans, Gunar Myrdal, Knut Wicksell...»

«EXTERNAL RELATIONS PROFESSIONAL 2 COMPETENCIES INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE COMPETENCIES AND WHY DO WE NEED THEM? Competencies are the skills, knowledge, practical behaviours and attitudes which inform the way you operate in working life. MMU’s competency framework comprises thirteen sections designed to cover the major aspects of every support staff role in Grades 1-7 within the University. This way of looking at jobs is not new to MMU; when applying for a job at the University, you will have been...»

«MITTEILUNGEN DER ANTHROPOLOGISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT IN WIEN CXLV. BAND Herausgegeben von der ANTHROPOLOGISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT IN WIEN Schriftleitung: KARINA GRÖMER Redaktion: Urund Frühgeschichte KARINA GRÖMER Ethnologie HERMANN MÜCKLER Anthropologie HERBERT KRITSCHER VERLAG DER ANTHROPOLOGISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT IN WIEN WIEN Mitgliedsbeitrag für Mitglieder in Österreich € 30,(Studenten bis 27 Jahre € 10,-) ohne Bezug der „Mitteilungen“. Für Mitglieder im Ausland € 50,mit Bezug der...»

«On Tangible User Interfaces, Humans and Spatiality EHUD SHARLIN1, BENJAMIN WATSON2, YOSHIFUMI KITAMURA1, FUMIO KISHINO1, YUICHI ITOH1 Human Interface Engineering Laboratory, Osaka University, Japan; 2 Department of Computer Science, Northwestern University, USA Abstract: Like the prehistoric twig and stone, tangible user interfaces (TUIs) are objects manipulated by humans. TUI success will depend on how well they exploit spatiality, the intuitive spatial skills humans have with the objects they...»

«Income Tax and National Insurance There are two types of tax on the income you receive as an employee in the United Kingdom – Income Tax and National Insurance. They are calculated using different methods and each has its own set of rules. PAYE (Pay as you Earn) Income Tax If you are an employee, income tax is collected under the PAYE (Pay As You Earn) system. This means that income tax is deducted from your salary before you receive it, and LSE forwards the tax on to HM Revenue and Customs...»

«Chapter Nine On The Genealogy of Morals “To breed an animal who makes promises (versprechen darf*) – Is this not the paradoxical task nature has set itself with respect to humans? Ist es nicht das eigentliche Problem vom Menschen? (Is it not precisely the human problem?)” (Nietzsche 1887, p.319) With these questions Nietzsche opens the second of his three essays on the genealogy of morals. They imply, taken in their context, that promise making and promise keeping are the central issues...»

«Common SQL Server Myths Back in April 2010 I had the idea to do a DBA-Myth-A-Day series on my blog (www.SQLskills.com/blogs/paul), as a way of helping people debunk myths and misconceptions about SQL Server and how it works. It turned into a bit of a laborof-love and some of the later blogs posts addressed tens of myths about a single subject. Many people have asked for these blog posts to be collected together, which I agreed to do but never found the time. One of the blog readers (Peter...»

«What Mutual Fund Boards Need to Know About Exchange Traded Funds Overview As more active mutual fund providers have filed for active ETFs it became clear to me that many of the board members for traditional mutual funds are ill prepared to discuss the key differences between operations of mutual funds and ETF funds. Traditional mutual funds don’t have the same operational processes as mutual funds and therefore the board member are/will be ill prepared to understand the supervisory roles...»

«WHAT IS THE BEST RIGGING CONFIGURATION TO USE IN NEW ZEALAND CABLE LOGGING OPERATIONS? Hunter Harrill* and Rien Visser PhD Student and Associate Professor Forest Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand *Email: Hunter.Harrill@pg.canterbury.ac.nz ABSTRACT There are a number of cable logging documents which describe the various rigging configurations, but very few provide any detailed information as to what system will be more productive, or safer, under what stand and...»

«Principal Eligibility Process STEP 1 Instructions A. ONLINE APPLICATION The application questions include candidate contact information and employment status. • WITH STRUCTURED RESUME AND TWO The resume is an overview of the candidate's career progression. Candidate lists their work experiences in reverse chronological order, beginning with current position. If a LEADERSHIP ESSAYS candidate has held multiple positions at the same school or organization, each position and the related...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.thesis.xlibx.info - Thesis, documentation, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.