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Classical Sets - Operations on Classical Sets, Properties of Classical (Crisp) Sets, Mapping of Classical Sets to Functions Fuzzy Sets - Fuzzy Set operations, Properties of Fuzzy Sets. Sets as Points in Hypercubes UNIT – 2 6 Hours Classical Relations and Fuzzy Relations: Cartesian Product, Crisp Relations

- Cardinality of Crisp Relations, Operations on Crisp Relations, Properties of Crisp Relations, Composition. Fuzzy Relations - Cardinality of Fuzzy Relations, Operations on Fuzzy Relations, Properties of Fuzzy Relations, Fuzzy Cartesian Product and Composition, Non-interactive Fuzzy Sets.

Tolerance and Equivalence Relations - Crisp Equivalence Relation, Crisp Tolerance Relation, Fuzzy Tolerance and Equivalence Relations. Value Assignments - Cosine Amplitude, Max-min Method, Other Similarity methods UNIT – 3 6 Hours Membership Functions: Features of the Membership Function, Standard Forms and Boundaries, Fuzzification, Membership Value Assignments – Intuition, Inference, Rank Ordering, Angular Fuzzy Sets, Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, Inductive Reasoning.

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Extension Principle - Crisp Functions, Mapping and Relations, Functions of fuzzy Sets – Extension Principle, Fuzzy Transform (Mapping), Practical Considerations, Fuzzy Numbers Interval Analysis in Arithmetic, Approximate Methods of Extension - Vertex method, DSW Algorithm, Restricted DSW Algorithm, Comparisons, Fuzzy Vectors


UNIT – 5 6 Hours Classical Logic and Fuzzy Logic: Classical Predicate Logic – Tautologies, Contradictions, Equivalence, Exclusive OR and Exclusive NOR, Logical Proofs, Deductive Inferences. Fuzzy Logic, Approximate Reasoning, Fuzzy Tautologies, Contradictions, Equivalence and Logical Proofs, Other forms of the Implication Operation, Other forms of the Composition Operation UNIT – 6 6 Hours Fuzzy Rule- Based Systems: Natural Language, Linguistic Hedges, RuleBased Systems - Canonical Rule Forms, Decomposition of Compound Rules, Likelihood and Truth Qualification, Aggregation of Fuzzy Rules, Graphical Techniques of Inference

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UNIT – 8 7 Hours Fuzzy Classification: Classification by Equivalence Relations - Crisp Relations, Fuzzy Relations. Cluster Analysis, Cluster Validity, c-Means Clustering - Hard c-Means (HCM), Fuzzy c-Means (FCM). Classification Metric, Hardening the Fuzzy c-Partition, Similarity Relations from Clustering

Text Books:

1. Timothy J. Ross: Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications, 2nd Edition, Wiley India, 2006..

(Chapter 1 (pp 1-14), Chapter 2 (pp 17-34), Chapter 3 ( pp 46-70), Chapter 4 (pp 87-122), Chapter 5 (pp 130-146), Chapter 6 (pp 151Chapter 7 ( pp 183-210), Chapter 8 (pp 232-254), Chapter 9 (pp 313-352), Chapter 10 ( pp 371 – 400))

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Note: Student is required to solve one problem from PART-A and one problem from PART-B. The questions are allotted based on lots. Both questions carry equal marks.

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The following experiments shall be conducted using either NS228/OPNET or any other suitable simulator.

1. Simulate a three nodes point – to – point network with duplex links between them. Set the queue size and vary the bandwidth and find the number of packets dropped.

2. Simulate a four node point-to-point network with the links connected as


n0 – n2, n1 – n2 and n2 – n3. Apply TCP agent between n0-n3 and UDP between n1-n3. Apply relevant applications over TCP and UDP agents changing the parameter and determine the number of packets sent by TCP / UDP.

3. Simulate the transmission of ping messages over a network topology consisting of 6 nodes and find the number of packets dropped due to congestion.

4. Simulate an Ethernet LAN using n nodes (6-10), change error rate and data rate and compare throughput.

5. Simulate an Ethernet LAN using n nodes and set multiple traffic nodes and plot congestion window for different source / destination.

6. Simulate simple ESS and with transmitting nodes in wire-less LAN by simulation and determine the performance with respect to transmission of packets.

PART-BImplement the following in C/C++:

7. Write a program for error detecting code using CRC-CCITT (16- bits).

8. Write a program for distance vector algorithm to find suitable path for transmission.

9. Using TCP/IP sockets, write a client – server program to make the client send the file name and to make the server send back the contents of the requested file if present.

10. Implement the above program using as message queues or FIFOs as IPC channels.

11. Write a program for simple RSA algorithm to encrypt and decrypt the data.

12. Write a program for congestion control using leaky bucket algorithm.


In the examination, a combination of one problem has to be asked from Part A for a total of 25 marks and one problem from Part B has to be asked for a total of 25 marks. The choice must be based on random selection from the entire lots.

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1. Develop and demonstrate a XHTML file that includes Javascript script

for the following problems:

a) Input: A number n obtained using prompt Output: The first n Fibonacci numbers

b) Input: A number n obtained using prompt Output: A table of numbers from 1 to n and their squares using alert

2. a) Develop and demonstrate, using Javascript script, a XHTML document that collects the USN ( the valid format is: A digit from 1 to 4 followed by two upper-case characters followed by two digits followed by two upper-case characters followed by three digits; no embedded spaces allowed) of the user. Event handler must be included for the form element that collects this information to validate the input. Messages in the alert windows must be produced when errors are detected.

b) Modify the above program to get the current semester also (restricted to be a number from 1 to 8)

3. a) Develop and demonstrate, using Javascript script, a XHTML document that contains three short paragraphs of text, stacked on top of each other, with only enough of each showing so that the mouse cursor can be placed over some part of them. When the cursor is placed over the exposed part of any paragraph, it should rise to the top to become completely visible.

b) Modify the above document so that when a paragraph is moved from the top stacking position, it returns to its original position rather than to the bottom.

4. a) Design an XML document to store information about a student in an engineering college affiliated to VTU. The information must include USN, Name, Name of the College, Brach, Year of Joining, and e-mail id.

Make up sample data for 3 students. Create a CSS style sheet and use it to display the document.

b) Create an XSLT style sheet for one student element of the above document and use it to create a display of that element.

5. a) Write a Perl program to display various Server Information like Server Name, Server Software, Server protocol, CGI Revision etc.

b) Write a Perl program to accept UNIX command from a HTML form and to display the output of the command executed.

6. a) Write a Perl program to accept the User Name and display a greeting message randomly chosen from a list of 4 greeting messages.

b) Write a Perl program to keep track of the number of visitors visiting the web page and to display this count of visitors, with proper headings.

7. Write a Perl program to display a digital clock which displays the current time of the server.

8. Write a Perl program to insert name and age information entered by the user into a table created using MySQL and to display the current contents of this table.

9. Write a PHP program to store current date-time in a COOKIE and display the ‘Last visited on’ date-time on the web page upon reopening of the same page.

10. Write a PHP program to store page views count in SESSION, to increment the count on each refresh, and to show the count on web page.

11. Create a XHTML form with Name, Address Line 1, Address Line 2, and E-mail text fields. On submitting, store the values in MySQL table.

Retrieve and display the data based on Name.

12. Build a Rails application to accept book information viz. Accession number, title, authors, edition and publisher from a web page and store the information in a database and to search for a book with the title specified by the user and to display the search results with proper headings.

Note: In the examination each student picks one question from the lot of all 12 questions.

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UNIT – 1 6 Hours Introduction: The Architecture Business Cycle: Where do architectures come from? Software processes and the architecture business cycle; What makes a “good” architecture? What software architecture is and what it is not; Other points of view; Architectural patterns, reference models and reference architectures; Importance of software architecture; Architectural structures and views.

UNIT – 2 7 Hours Architectural Styles and Case Studies: Architectural styles; Pipes and filters; Data abstraction and object-oriented organization; Event-based, implicit invocation; Layered systems; Repositories; Interpreters; Process control; Other familiar architectures; Heterogeneous architectures. Case Studies: Keyword in Context; Instrumentation software; Mobile robotics;

Cruise control; Three vignettes in mixed style.

UNIT – 3 6 Hours Quality: Functionality and architecture; Architecture and quality attributes;

System quality attributes; Quality attribute scenarios in practice; Other system quality attributes; Business qualities; Architecture qualities.

Achieving Quality: Introducing tactics; Availability tactics; Modifiability tactics; Performance tactics; Security tactics; Testability tactics; Usability tactics; Relationship of tactics to architectural patterns; Architectural patterns and styles.

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UNIT – 8 7 Hours Designing and Documenting Software Architecture: Architecture in the life cycle; Designing the architecture; Forming the team structure; Creating a skeletal system. Uses of architectural documentation; Views; Choosing the relevant views; Documenting a view; Documentation across views.

Text Books:

1. Len Bass, Paul Clements, Rick Kazman: Software Architecture in Practice, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 2003.

(Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9)

2. Frank Buschmann, Regine Meunier, Hans Rohnert, Peter Sommerlad, Michael Stal: Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture, A System of Patterns, Volume 1, John Wiley and Sons, 2007.

(Chapters 2, 3.1 to 3.4)

3. Mary Shaw and David Garlan: Software Architecture- Perspectives on an Emerging Discipline, PHI, 2007.

(Chapters 1.1, 2, 3)

Reference Books:

1. E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides: Design PatternsElements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, Pearson Education, 1995.

Web Reference: http://www.hillside.net/patterns/

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PART – A UNIT – 1 8 Hours Introduction: When simulation is the appropriate tool and when it is not appropriate; Advantages and disadvantages of Simulation; Areas of application; Systems and system environment; Components of a system;

Discrete and continuous systems; Model of a system; Types of Models;

Discrete-Event System Simulation; Steps in a Simulation Study. The basics of Spreadsheet simulation, Simulation example: Simulation of queuing systems in a spreadsheet.

UNIT – 2 6 Hours General Principles, Simulation Software: Concepts in Discrete-Event Simulation: The Event-Scheduling / Time-Advance Algorithm, World Views, Manual simulation Using Event Scheduling; List processing.

Simulation in Java; Simulation in GPSS

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UNIT – 4 6 Hours Queuing Models: Characteristics of queuing systems; Queuing notation;

Long-run measures of performance of queuing systems; Steady-state behavior of M/G/1 queue; Networks of queues; Rough-cut modeling: An illustration..

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UNIT – 5 8 Hours Random-Number Generation, Random-Variate Generation: Properties of random numbers; Generation of pseudo-random numbers; Techniques for generating random numbers; Tests for Random Numbers Random-Variate Generation: Inverse transform technique; Acceptance-Rejection technique;

Special properties.

UNIT – 6 6 Hours Input Modeling : Data Collection; Identifying the distribution with data;

Parameter estimation; Goodness of Fit Tests; Fitting a non-stationary Poisson process; Selecting input models without data; Multivariate and Time-Series input models.

UNIT – 7 6 Hours Estimation of Absolute Performance: Types of simulations with respect to output analysis; Stochastic nature of output data; Absolute measures of performance and their estimation; Output analysis for terminating simulations; Output analysis for steady-state simulations.

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Text Books:

1. Jerry Banks, John S. Carson II, Barry L. Nelson, David M. Nicol:

Discrete-Event System Simulation, 5th Edition, Pearson Education, 2010.

(Listed topics only from Chapters1 to 12)

Reference Books:

1. Lawrence M. Leemis, Stephen K. Park: Discrete – Event Simulation: A First Course, Pearson Education, 2006.

2. Averill M. Law: Simulation Modeling and Analysis, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2007.


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