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# «VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, BELGAUM III SEMESTER ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS – III CODE: 10 MAT 31 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/Week: 04 Exam Hrs: 03 ...»

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Design, develop and implement the specified algorithms for the following problems using C/C++ Language in LINUX / Windows environment.

1. Sort a given set of elements using the Quicksort method and determine the time required to sort the elements. Repeat the experiment for different values of n, the number of elements in the list to be sorted and plot a graph of the time taken versus n.

The elements can be read from a file or can be generated using the random number generator.

2. Using OpenMP, implement a parallelized Merge Sort algorithm to sort a given set of elements and determine the time required to sort the elements. Repeat the experiment for different values of n, the number of elements in the list to be sorted and plot a graph of the time taken versus n. The elements can be read from a file or can be generated using the random number generator.

–  –  –

5. From a given vertex in a weighted connected graph, find shortest paths to other vertices using Dijkstra's algorithm.

6. Find Minimum Cost Spanning Tree of a given undirected graph using Kruskal's algorithm.

7. a. Print all the nodes reachable from a given starting node in a digraph using BFS method.

b. Check whether a given graph is connected or not using DFS method.

8. Find a subset of a given set S = {sl, s2,.....,sn} of n positive integers whose sum is equal to a given positive integer d. For example, if S= {1, 2, 5, 6, 8} and d = 9 there are two solutions{1,2,6}and{1,8}.A suitable message is to be displayed if the given problem instance doesn't have a solution.

9. Implement any scheme to find the optimal solution for the Traveling Salesperson problem and then solve the same problem instance using any approximation algorithm and determine the error in the approximation.

10. Find Minimum Cost Spanning Tree of a given undirected graph using Prim’s algorithm.

11. Implement All-Pairs Shortest Paths Problem using Floyd's algorithm. Parallelize this algorithm, implement it using OpenMP and determine the speed-up achieved.

12. Implement N Queen's problem using Back Tracking.

Note: In the examination each student picks one question from the lot of all 12 questions.

–  –  –

• Develop and execute the following programs using 8086 Assembly Language. Any suitable assembler like MASM, TASM etc may be used.

• Program should have suitable comments.

• The board layout and the circuit diagram of the interface are to be provided to the student during the examination.

1. a) Search a key element in a list of ‘n’ 16-bit numbers using the Binary search algorithm.

b) Read the status of eight input bits from the Logic Controller Interface and display ‘FF’ if it is the parity of the input read is even; otherwise display 00.

2. a) Write two ALP modules stored in two different files; one module is to read a character from the keyboard and the other one is to display a character. Use the above two modules to read a string of characters from the keyboard terminated by the carriage return and print the string on the display in the next line.

b) Implement a BCD Up-Down Counter on the Logic Controller Interface.

3. a) Sort a given set of ‘n’ numbers in ascending order using the Bubble Sort algorithm.

b) Read the status of two 8-bit inputs (X & Y) from the Logic Controller Interface and display X*Y.

4. a) Read an alphanumeric character and display its equivalent ASCII code at the center of the screen.

b) Display messages FIRE and HELP alternately with flickering effects on a 7-segment display interface for a suitable period of time. Ensure a flashing rate that makes it easy to read both the messages (Examiner does not specify these delay values nor is it necessary for the student to compute these values).

5. a) Reverse a given string and check whether it is a palindrome or not.

b) Assume any suitable message of 12 characters length and display it in the rolling fashion on a 7-segment display interface for a suitable period of time. Ensure a flashing rate that makes it easy to read both the messages. (Examiner does not specify these delay values nor is it necessary for the student to compute these values).

6. a) Read two strings, store them in locations STR1 and STR2. Check whether they are equal or not and display appropriate messages.

Also display the length of the stored strings.

b) Convert a 16-bit binary value (assumed to be an unsigned integer) to BCD and display it from left to right and right to left for specified number of times on a 7-segment display interface.

7. a) Read your name from the keyboard and display it at a specified location on the screen after the message “What is your name?” You must clear the entire screen before display.

b) Scan a 8 x 3 keypad for key closure and to store the code of the key pressed in a memory location or display on screen. Also display row and column numbers of the key pressed.

8. a) Compute nCr using recursive procedure. Assume that ‘n’ and ‘r’ are non-negative integers.

b) Drive a Stepper Motor interface to rotate the motor in specified direction (clockwise or counter-clockwise) by N steps (Direction and N are specified by the examiner). Introduce suitable delay between successive steps. (Any arbitrary value for the delay may be assumed by the student).

9. a) Read the current time from the system and display it in the standard format on the screen.

b) Generate the Sine Wave using DAC interface (The output of the DAC is to be displayed on the CRO).

10. a) Write a program to simulate a Decimal Up-counter to display 00b) Generate a Half Rectified Sine wave form using the DAC interface. (The output of the DAC is to be displayed on the CRO).

11. a) Read a pair of input co-ordinates in BCD and move the cursor to the specified location on the screen.

b) Generate a Fully Rectified Sine waveform using the DAC interface. (The output of the DAC is to be displayed on the CRO).

12. a) Write a program to create a file (input file) and to delete an existing file.

b) Drive an elevator interface in the following way:

i. Initially the elevator should be in the ground floor, with all requests in OFF state.

ii. When a request is made from a floor, the elevator should move to that floor, wait there for a couple of seconds (approximately), and then come down to ground floor and stop. If some requests occur during going up or coming down they should be ignored.

Note: In the examination each student picks one question from the lot of all 12 questions.

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UNIT – 1 6 Hours Overview: Introduction: FAQ's about software engineering, Professional and ethical responsibility.

Socio-Technical systems: Emergent system properties; Systems engineering;

Organizations, people and computer systems; Legacy systems.

UNIT – 2 6 Hours Critical Systems, Software Processes: Critical Systems: A simple safetycritical system; System dependability; Availability and reliability.

Software Processes: Models, Process iteration, Process activities; The Rational Unified Process; Computer Aided Software Engineering.

UNIT – 3 7 Hours Requirements: Software Requirements: Functional and Non-functional requirements; User requirements; System requirements; Interface specification; The software requirements document.

Requirements Engineering Processes: Feasibility studies; Requirements elicitation and analysis; Requirements validation; Requirements management.

UNIT – 4 7 Hours System models, Project Management: System Models: Context models;

Behavioral models; Data models; Object models; Structured methods.

Project Management: Management activities; Project planning; Project scheduling; Risk management

–  –  –

UNIT – 5 7 Hours Software Design: Architectural Design: Architectural design decisions;

System organization; Modular decomposition styles; Control styles.

Object-Oriented design: Objects and Object Classes; An Object-Oriented design process; Design evolution.

UNIT – 6 6 Hours Development: Rapid Software Development: Agile methods; Extreme programming; Rapid application development.

Software Evolution: Program evolution dynamics; Software maintenance;

Evolution processes; Legacy system evolution.

UNIT – 7 7 Hours Verification and Validation: Verification and Validation: Planning;

Software inspections; Automated static analysis; Verification and formal methods.

Software testing: System testing; Component testing; Test case design; Test automation.

UNIT – 8 6 Hours Management: Managing People: Selecting staff; Motivating people;

Managing people; The People Capability Maturity Model.

Software Cost Estimation: Productivity; Estimation techniques; Algorithmic cost modeling, Project duration and staffing.

Text Books:

1. Ian Sommerville: Software Engineering, 8th Edition, Pearson Education, 2007.

(Chapters-: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 17, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26)

Reference Books:

1. Roger.S.Pressman: Software Engineering-A Practitioners approach, 7th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2007.

2. Pankaj Jalote: An Integrated Approach to Software Engineering, Wiley India, 2009.

–  –  –

UNIT – 1 6 Hours Machine Architecture: Introduction, System Software and Machine Architecture, Simplified Instructional Computer (SIC) - SIC Machine Architecture, SIC/XE Machine Architecture, SIC Programming Examples.

UNIT – 2 6 Hours Assemblers -1: Basic Assembler Function - A Simple SIC Assembler, Assembler Algorithm and Data Structures, Machine Dependent Assembler Features - Instruction Formats & Addressing Modes, Program Relocation.

UNIT – 3 6 Hours Assemblers -2: Machine Independent Assembler Features – Literals, Symbol-Definition Statements, Expression, Program Blocks, Control Sections and Programming Linking, Assembler Design Operations - OnePass Assembler, Multi-Pass Assembler, Implementation Examples - MASM Assembler.

–  –  –

UNIT – 5 6 Hours Editors and Debugging Systems: Text Editors - Overview of Editing Process, User Interface, Editor Structure, Interactive Debugging Systems Debugging Functions and Capabilities, Relationship With Other Parts Of The System, User-Interface Criteria UNIT – 6 8 Hours Macro Processor: Basic Macro Processor Functions - Macro Definitions and Expansion, Macro Processor Algorithm and Data Structures, MachineIndependent Macro Processor Features - Concatenation of Macro Parameters, Generation of Unique Labels, Conditional Macro Expansion, Keyword Macro Parameters, Macro Processor Design Options - Recursive Macro Expansion, General-Purpose Macro Processors, Macro Processing Within Language Translators, Implementation Examples - MASM Macro Processor, ANSI C Macro Processor.

UNIT – 7 6 Hours Lex and Yacc – 1: Lex and Yacc - The Simplest Lex Program, Recognizing Words With LEX, Symbol Tables, Grammars, Parser-Lexer Communication, The Parts of Speech Lexer, A YACC Parser, The Rules Section, Running LEX and YACC, LEX and Hand- Written Lexers, Using LEX - Regular Expression, Examples of Regular Expressions, A Word Counting Program, Parsing a Command Line.

UNIT – 8 6 Hours Lex and Yacc - 2 : Using YACC – Grammars, Recursive Rules, Shift/Reduce Parsing, What YACC Cannot Parse, A YACC Parser - The Definition Section, The Rules Section, Symbol Values and Actions, The LEXER, Compiling and Running a Simple Parser, Arithmetic Expressions and Ambiguity, Variables and Typed Tokens.

Text Books:

1. Leland.L.Beck: System Software, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, 1997.

(Chapters 1.1 to 1.3, 2 (except 2.5.2 and 2.5.3), 3 (except 3.5.2 and 3.5.3), 4 (except 4.4.3))

2. John.R.Levine, Tony Mason and Doug Brown: Lex and Yacc, O'Reilly, SPD, 1998.

(Chapters 1, 2 (Page 2-42), 3 (Page 51-65))

Reference Books:

1. D.M.Dhamdhere: System Programming and Operating Systems, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw - Hill, 1999.

–  –  –

UNIT – 1 6 Hours Introduction to Operating Systems, System structures: What operating systems do; Computer System organization; Computer System architecture;

Operating System structure; Operating System operations; Process management; Memory management; Storage management; Protection and security; Distributed system; Special-purpose systems; Computing environments.Operating System Services; User - Operating System interface;

System calls; Types of system calls; System programs; Operating System design and implementation; Operating System structure; Virtual machines;

Operating System generation; System boot.

UNIT – 2 7 Hours Process Management: Process concept; Process scheduling; Operations on

Process Scheduling: Basic concepts; Scheduling criteria; Scheduling algorithms; Multiple-Processor scheduling; Thread scheduling.

UNIT – 3 7 Hours Process Synchronization : Synchronization: The Critical section problem;

Peterson’s solution; Synchronization hardware; Semaphores; Classical problems of synchronization; Monitors.

–  –  –

UNIT – 5 7 Hours Memory Management: Memory Management Strategies: Background;

Swapping; Contiguous memory allocation; Paging; Structure of page table;

Segmentation. Virtual Memory Management: Background; Demand paging;

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