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Copy-on-write; Page replacement; Allocation of frames; Thrashing.

UNIT – 6 7 Hours File System, Implementation of File System: File System: File concept;

Access methods; Directory structure; File system mounting; File sharing;

Protection. Implementing File System: File system structure; File system implementation; Directory implementation; Allocation methods; Free space management UNIT – 7 6 Hours Secondary Storage Structures, Protection : Mass storage structures; Disk structure; Disk attachment; Disk scheduling; Disk management; Swap space management. Protection: Goals of protection, Principles of protection, Domain of protection, Access matrix, Implementation of access matrix, Access control, Revocation of access rights, Capability-Based systems.

UNIT – 8 6 Hours Case Study: The Linux Operating System: Linux history; Design principles; Kernel modules; Process management; Scheduling; Memory management; File systems, Input and output; Inter-process communication.

Text Books:

1. Abraham Silberschatz, Peter Baer Galvin, Greg Gagne: Operating System Principles, 8th edition, Wiley India, 2009.

(Listed topics only from Chapters 1 to 12, 17, 21)

Reference Books:

1. D.M Dhamdhere: Operating systems - A concept based Approach, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw- Hill, 2002.

2. P.C.P. Bhatt: Introduction to Operating Systems: Concepts and Practice, 2nd Edition, PHI, 2008.

3. Harvey M Deital: Operating systems, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, 1990.

–  –  –

UNIT – 1 6 Hours Introduction: Introduction; An example; Characteristics of Database approach; Actors on the screen; Workers behind the scene; Advantages of using DBMS approach; A brief history of database applications; when not to use a DBMS.

Data models, schemas and instances; Three-schema architecture and data independence; Database languages and interfaces; The database system environment; Centralized and client-server architectures; Classification of Database Management systems.

UNIT – 2 6 Hours Entity-Relationship Model: Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design; An Example Database Application; Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes and Keys; Relationship types, Relationship Sets, Roles and Structural Constraints; Weak Entity Types; Refining the ER Design; ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions and Design Issues; Relationship types of degree higher than two.

UNIT – 3 8 Hours Relational Model and Relational Algebra : Relational Model Concepts;

Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas; Update Operations, Transactions and dealing with constraint violations; Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT; Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory; Binary Relational Operations : JOIN and DIVISION; Additional Relational Operations; Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra; Relational Database Design Using ER- to-Relational Mapping.

–  –  –

UNIT – 7 6 Hours Database Design -2: Properties of Relational Decompositions; Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design; Multivalued Dependencies and Fourth Normal Form; Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form; Inclusion Dependencies; Other Dependencies and Normal Forms UNIT – 8 8 Hours Transaction Management: The ACID Properties; Transactions and Schedules; Concurrent Execution of Transactions; Lock- Based Concurrency Control; Performance of locking; Transaction support in SQL; Introduction to crash recovery; 2PL, Serializability and Recoverability; Lock Management; Introduction to ARIES; The log; Other recovery-related structures; The write-ahead log protocol; Checkpointing; Recovering from a System Crash; Media Recovery; Other approaches and interaction with concurrency control.

Text Books:

1. Elmasri and Navathe: Fundamentals of Database Systems, 5th Edition, Pearson Education, 2007.

(Chapters 1, 2, 3 except 3.8, 5, 6.1 to 6.5, 7.1, 8, 9.1, 9.2 except SQLJ, 9.4, 10)

2. Raghu Ramakrishnan and Johannes Gehrke: Database Management Systems, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2003.

(Chapters 16, 17.1, 17.2, 18)

Reference Books:

1. Silberschatz, Korth and Sudharshan: Data base System Concepts, 6th Edition, Mc-GrawHill, 2010.

2. C.J. Date, A. Kannan, S. Swamynatham: An Introduction to Database Systems, 8th Edition, Pearson Education, 2006.

–  –  –

UNIT- 2 7 Hours Physical Layer-1: Analog & Digital Signals, Transmission Impairment, Data

Rate limits, Performance, Digital-digital conversion (Only Line coding:

Polar, Bipolar and Manchester coding), Analog-to-digital conversion (only PCM), Transmission Modes, Digital-to-analog conversion

–  –  –

Text Books:

1. Behrouz A. Forouzan,: Data Communication and Networking, 4th Edition Tata McGraw-Hill, 2006.

(Chapters 1.1 to 1.4, 2.1 to 2.5, 3.1 To 3.6, 4.1 to 4.3, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2, 8.1 to 8.3, 10.1 to 10.5, 11.1 to 11.7, 12.1 to 12.3, 13.1 to 13.5, 14.1, 14.2, 15.1, 16.1, 19.1, 19.2, 20.1 to 20.3)

Reference Books:

1. Alberto Leon-Garcia and Indra Widjaja: Communication Networks Fundamental Concepts and Key architectures, 2nd Edition Tata McGraw-Hill, 2004.

2. William Stallings: Data and Computer Communication, 8th Edition, Pearson Education, 2007.

3. Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie: Computer Networks – A Systems Approach, 4th Edition, Elsevier, 2007.

4. Nader F. Mir: Computer and Communication Networks, Pearson Education, 2007.


–  –  –

UNIT – 2 7 Hours Finite Automata, Regular Expressions: An application of finite automata;

Finite automata with Epsilon-transitions; Regular expressions; Finite Automata and Regular Expressions; Applications of Regular Expressions UNIT – 3 6 Hours Regular Languages, Properties of Regular Languages: Regular languages; Proving languages not to be regular languages; Closure properties of regular languages; Decision properties of regular languages; Equivalence and minimization of automata

–  –  –

UNIT – 7 7 Hours Introduction To Turing Machine: Problems that Computers cannot solve;

The turning machine; Programming techniques for Turning Machines;

Extensions to the basic Turning Machines; Turing Machine and Computers.

–  –  –

Text Books:

1. John E. Hopcroft, Rajeev Motwani, Jeffrey D.Ullman: Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages and Computation, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, 2007.

(Chapters: 1.1, 1.5, 2.2 to 2.5, 3.1 to 3.3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.1 to 8.4, 8.6, 9.1, 9.2, 9.4.1, 9.5)

Reference Books:

1. K.L.P. Mishra: Theory of Computer Science, Automata, Languages, and Computation, 3rd Edition, PHI Learning, 2009.

2. Raymond Greenlaw, H.James Hoover: Fundamentals of the Theory of Computation, Principles and Practice, Elsevier, 1998.

3. John C Martin: Introduction to Languages and Automata Theory, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2007.

4. Thomas A. Sudkamp: An Introduction to the Theory of Computer Science, Languages and Machines, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, 2006.

–  –  –

2. The following relations keep track of airline flight information:

Flights (no: integer, from: string, to: string, distance: integer, Departs: time, arrives: time, price: real) Aircraft (aid: integer, aname: string, cruisingrange: integer) Certified (eid: integer, aid: integer) Employees (eid: integer, ename: string, salary: integer) Note that the Employees relation describes pilots and other kinds of employees as well; Every pilot is certified for some aircraft, and only pilots are certified to fly.

Write each of the following queries in SQL.

–  –  –

5. Consider the following database for a banking enterprise BRANCH(branch-name:string, branch-city:string, assets:real) ACCOUNT(accno:int, branch-name:string, balance:real) DEPOSITOR(customer-name:string, accno:int) CUSTOMER(customer-name:string, customer-street:string, customer-city:string) LOAN(loan-number:int, branch-name:string, amount:real) BORROWER(customer-name:string, loan-number:int) i. Create the above tables by properly specifying the primary keys and the foreign keys ii. Enter at least five tuples for each relation iii. Find all the customers who have at least two accounts at the Main branch.

iv. Find all the customers who have an account at all the branches located in a specific city.

v. Demonstrate how you delete all account tuples at every branch located in a specific city.

vi. Generate suitable reports.

vii. Create suitable front end for querying and displaying the results.


1. The exercises are to be solved in an RDBMS environment like Oracle or DB2.

2. Suitable tuples have to be entered so that queries are executed correctly.

3. Front end may be created using either VB or VAJ or any other similar tool.

4. The student need not create the front end in the examination.

The results of the queries may be displayed directly.

5. Relevant queries other than the ones listed along with the exercises may also be asked in the examination.

6. Questions must be asked based on lots.

–  –  –

1. a) Program to count the number of characters, words, spaces and lines in a given input file.

b) Program to count the numbers of comment lines in a given C program. Also eliminate them and copy the resulting program into separate file.

2. a) Program to recognize a valid arithmetic expression and to recognize the identifiers and operators present. Print them separately.

b) Program to recognize whether a given sentence is simple or compound.

3. Program to recognize and count the number of identifiers in a given input file.

Design, develop, and execute the following programs using YACC:

4. a) Program to recognize a valid arithmetic expression that uses operators +, -, * and /.

b) Program to recognize a valid variable, which starts with a letter, followed by any number of letters or digits.

5. a) Program to evaluate an arithmetic expression involving operators +, -, * and /.

b) Program to recognize strings ‘aaab’, ‘abbb’, ‘ab’ and ‘a’ using the grammar (anbn, n= 0).

Program to recognize the grammar (anb, n= 10).


–  –  –

7. a) Non-recursive shell script that accepts any number of arguments and prints them in the Reverse order, ( For example, if the script is named rargs, then executing rargs A B C should produce C B A on the standard output).

b) C program that creates a child process to read commands from the standard input and execute them (a minimal implementation of a shell – like program). You can assume that no arguments will be passed to the commands to be executed.

8. a) Shell script that accepts two file names as arguments, checks if the permissions for these files are identical and if the permissions are identical, outputs the common permissions, otherwise outputs each file name followed by its permissions.

b) C program to create a file with 16 bytes of arbitrary data from the beginning and another 16 bytes of arbitrary data from an offset of 48. Display the file contents to demonstrate how the hole in file is handled.

9. a) Shell script that accepts file names specified as arguments and creates a shell script that contains this file as well as the code to recreate these files. Thus if the script generated by your script is executed, it would recreate the original files(This is same as the “bundle” script described by Brain W. Kernighan and Rob Pike in “ The Unix Programming Environment”, Prentice – Hall India).

b) C program to do the following: Using fork( ) create a child process. The child process prints its own process-id and id of its parent and then exits. The parent process waits for its child to finish (by executing the wait( )) and prints its own process-id and the id of its child process and then exits.

Operating Systems:

10. Design, develop and execute a program in C / C++ to simulate the working of Shortest Remaining Time and Round-Robin Scheduling Algorithms. Experiment with different quantum sizes for the RoundRobin algorithm. In all cases, determine the average turn-around time. The input can be read from key board or from a file.

11. Using OpenMP, Design, develop and run a multi-threaded program to generate and print Fibonacci Series. One thread has to generate the numbers up to the specified limit and another thread has to print them. Ensure proper synchronization.

12. Design, develop and run a program to implement the Banker’s Algorithm. Demonstrate its working with different data values.


In the examination, a combination of one LEX and one YACC problem has to be asked from Part A for a total of 30 marks and one programming exercise from Part B has to be asked for a total of 20 marks.

–  –  –

UNIT – 2 6 Hours UNIX Files: File Types, The UNIX and POSIX File System, The UNIX and POSIX File Attributes, Inodes in UNIX System V, Application Program Interface to Files, UNIX Kernel Support for Files, Relationship of C Stream Pointers and File Descriptors, Directory Files, Hard and Symbolic Links.

UNIT – 3 7 Hours UNIX File APIs: General File APIs, File and Record Locking, Directory File APIs, Device File APIs, FIFO File APIs, Symbolic Link File APIs, General File Class, regfile Class for Regular Files, dirfile Class for Directory Files, FIFO File Class, Device File Class, Symbolic Link File Class, File Listing Program.

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