# «VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, BELGAUM III SEMESTER ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS – III CODE: 10 MAT 31 IA Marks: 25 Hrs/Week: 04 Exam Hrs: 03 ...»

UNIT – 4 7 Hours UNIX Processes: The Environment of a UNIX Process: Introduction, main function, Process Termination, Command-Line Arguments, Environment List, Memory Layout of a C Program, Shared Libraries, Memory Allocation, Environment Variables, setjmp and longjmp Functions, getrlimit, setrlimit Functions, UNIX Kernel Support for Processes.

PART - B UNIT – 5 7 Hours Process Control : Introduction, Process Identifiers, fork, vfork, exit, wait, waitpid, wait3, wait4 Functions, Race Conditions, exec Functions, Changing User IDs and Group IDs, Interpreter Files, system Function, Process Accounting, User Identification, Process Times, I/O Redirection.

Process Relationships: Introduction, Terminal Logins, Network Logins, Process Groups, Sessions, Controlling Terminal, tcgetpgrp and tcsetpgrp Functions, Job Control, Shell Execution of Programs, Orphaned Process Groups.

UNIT – 6 7 Hours Signals and Daemon Processes: Signals: The UNIX Kernel Support for Signals, signal, Signal Mask, sigaction, The SIGCHLD Signal and the waitpid Function, The sigsetjmp and siglongjmp Functions, Kill, Alarm, Interval Timers, POSIX.lb Timers.

Daemon Processes: Introduction, Daemon Characteristics, Coding Rules, Error Logging, Client-Server Model.

**Text Books:**

1. Terrence Chan: UNIX System Programming Using C++, Prentice Hall India, 1999.

(Chapters 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)

2. W. Richard Stevens: Advanced Programming in the UNIX Environment, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 2005.

(Chapters 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15)

**Reference Books:**

1. Marc J. Rochkind: Advanced UNIX Programming, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 2005.

2. Maurice J Bach: The Design of the UNIX Operating System, Pearson Education, 1987.

3. Uresh Vahalia: UNIX Internals: The New Frontiers, Pearson Education, 2001.

UNIT – 1 8 Hours Introduction, Lexical analysis: Language processors; The structure of a Compiler; The evolution pf programming languages; The science of building a Compiler; Applications of compiler technology; Programming language basics.

Lexical analysis: The Role of Lexical Analyzer; Input Buffering;

Specifications of Tokens; Recognition of Tokens.

**Text Books:**

1. Alfred V Aho, Monica S.Lam, Ravi Sethi, Jeffrey D Ullman:

Compilers- Principles, Techniques and Tools, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 2007.

(Chapters 1, 3.1 to 3.4, 4 excluding 4.7.5 and 4.7.6, 5.1 to 5.4, 6.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, 6.7 to 6.9, 7.1 to 7.5, 8.1 to 8.6.)

**Reference Books:**

1. Charles N. Fischer, Richard J. leBlanc, Jr.: Crafting a Compiler with C, Pearson Education, 1991.

2. Andrew W Apple: Modern Compiler Implementation in C, Cambridge University Press, 1997.

3. Kenneth C Louden: Compiler Construction Principles & Practice, Cengage Learning, 1997.

PART – B UNIT - 5 7 Hours Applications, Network Management, Network Security: Application layer overview, Domain Name System (DNS), Remote Login Protocols, E-mail, File Transfer and FTP, World Wide Web and HTTP, Network management, Overview of network security, Overview of security methods, Secret-key encryption protocols, Public-key encryption protocols, Authentication, Authentication and digital signature, Firewalls.

UNIT - 7 7 Hours Multimedia Networking: Overview of data compression, Digital voice and compression, JPEG, MPEG, Limits of compression with loss, Compression methods without loss, Overview of IP Telephony, VoIP signaling protocols, Real-Time Media Transport Protocols, Stream control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) UNIT – 8 6 Hours Mobile AdHoc Networks and Wireless Sensor Neworks: Overview of Wireless Ad-Hoc networks, Routing in AdHOc Networks, Routing protocols for and Security of AdHoc networks, Sensor Networks and protocol structures, Communication Energy model, Clustering protocols, Routing protocols, ZigBee technology and 802.15.4.

**Text Books:**

1. Communication Networks – Fundamental Concepts & key architectures, Alberto Leon Garcia & Indra Widjaja, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, India (7 - excluding 7.6, 8)

2. Computer & Communication Networks, Nadir F Mir, Pearson Education, India (9, 10 excluding 10.7, 12.1 to 12.3, 16, 17.1 to 17.6, 18.1 to18.3, 18.5, 19, 20)

**Reference Books:**

1. Behrouz A. Forouzan: Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2006.

2. William Stallings: Data and Computer Communication, 8th Edition, Pearson Education, 2007.

3. Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie: Computer Networks – A Systems Approach, 4th Edition, Elsevier, 2007.

4. Wayne Tomasi: Introduction to Data Communications and Networking, Pearson Education, 2005.

UNIT – 1 7 Hours Introduction: Applications of computer graphics; A graphics system;

Images: Physical and synthetic; Imaging Systems; The synthetic camera model; The programmer’s interface; Graphics architectures; Programmable Pipelines; Performance Characteristics Graphics Programming: The Sierpinski gasket; Programming Two Dimensional Applications.

UNIT – 3 7 Hours Input and Interaction: Interaction; Input devices; Clients and Servers; Display Lists; Display Lists and Modeling; Programming Event Driven Input; Menus;

Picking; A simple CAD program; Building Interactive Models; Animating Interactive Programs; Design of Interactive Programs; Logic Operations UNIT – 4 6 Hours Geometric Objects and Transformations-I: Scalars, Points, and Vectors;

Three-dimensional Primitives; Coordinate Systems and Frames; Modeling a Colored Cube; Affine Transformations; Rotation, Translation and Scaling;

UNIT – 5 5 Hours Geometric Objects and Transformations-II: Geometric Objects and Transformations; Transformation in Homogeneous Coordinates; Concatenation of Transformations; OpenGL Transformation Matrices; Interfaces to threedimensional applications; Quaternion’s.

UNIT – 6 7 Hours Viewing : Classical and computer viewing; Viewing with a Computer;

Positioning of the camera; Simple projections; Projections in OpenGL; Hiddensurface removal; Interactive Mesh Displays; Parallel-projection matrices;

Perspective-projection matrices; Projections and Shadows.

UNIT – 7 6 Hours Lighting and Shading: Light and Matter; Light Sources; The Phong Lighting model; Computation of vectors; Polygonal Shading; Approximation of a sphere by recursive subdivisions; Light sources in OpenGL; Specification of materials in OpenGL; Shading of the sphere model; Global Illumination.

UNIT – 8 8 Hours Implementation: Basic Implementation Strategies; Four major tasks; Clipping;

Line-segment clipping; Polygon clipping; Clipping of other primitives;

Clipping in three dimensions; Rasterization; Bresenham’s algorithm; Polygon Rasterization; Hidden-surface removal; Antialiasing; Display considerations.

**Text Books:**

1. Edward Angel: Interactive Computer Graphics A Top-Down Approach with OpenGL, 5th Edition, Pearson Education, 2008.

(Chapters 1 to 7)

**Reference Books:**

1. Donald Hearn and Pauline Baker: Computer Graphics- OpenGL Version, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, 2004.

F.S. Hill Jr.: Computer Graphics Using OpenGL, 3rd Edition, PHI, 2.

2009.

3. James D Foley, Andries Van Dam, Steven K Feiner, John F Hughes, Computer Graphics, Pearson Education 1997.

UNIT – 5 7 Hours Duality Theory and Sensitivity Analysis, Other Algorithms for LP : The role of duality in sensitive analysis; The essence of sensitivity analysis;

Applying sensitivity analysis. The dual simplex method; Parametric linear programming; The upper bound technique.

UNIT – 7 6 Hours Game Theory, Decision Analysis: Game Theory: The formulation of two persons, zero sum games; Solving simple games- a prototype example;

Games with mixed strategies; Graphical solution procedure; Solving by linear programming, Extensions.

Decision Analysis: A prototype example; Decision making without experimentation; Decision making with experimentation; Decision trees.

**Text Books:**

1. Frederick S. Hillier and Gerald J. Lieberman: Introduction to Operations Research: Concepts and Cases, 8th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2005.

(Chapters: 1, 2, 3.1 to 3.4, 4.1 to 4.8, 5, 6.1 to 6.7, 7.1 to 7.3, 8, 13, 14, 15.1 to 15.4)

**Reference Books:**

1. Wayne L. Winston: Operations Research Applications and Algorithms, 4th Edition, Cengage Learning, 2003.

2. Hamdy A Taha: Operations Research: An Introduction, 8th Edition, Pearson Education, 2007.

UNIT – 2 7 Hours Systems, Time-domain representations – 1: Systems viewed as interconnections of operations; Properties of systems; Convolution; Impulse response representation; Properties of impulse response representation.

UNIT – 7 7 Hours Applications of Fourier Representations – 2, Z-Transforms – 1: Fourier transform representations for periodic signals; Sampling of continuous time signals and signal reconstruction.

Introduction to Z-transform; Properties of ROC; Properties of Z-transforms;

Inversion of Z-transforms

**Text Books:**

1. Simon Haykin and Barry Van Veen: Signals and Systems, 2nd Edition, Wiley India, 2007.

(Chapters: 1.1 to 1.8, 2.2 to 2.5, 3.1 to 3.6, 4.2 to 4.3, 4.7, 7.1 to 7.6, 7.8)

**Reference Books:**

1. Alan V. Oppenheim, Alan S. Willsky and S. Hamid Nawab: Signals and Systems, 2nd Edition, PHI, 1997, Indian reprint 2009.

2. Ganesh Rao D and Satish Tunga: Signals and Systems - A Simplified Approach, Sanguine Technical Publishers, 2003-04.

UNIT –1 7 Hours Introduction, Lossless Compression -1: Compression techniques; Modeling and coding.

Mathematical preliminaries for lossless compression: Overview; Basic concepts of Information Theory; Models; Coding; Algorithmic information theory; Minimum description length principle.

Huffman coding: Overview; The Huffman coding algorithm, Minimumvariance Huffman codes; Application of Huffman coding for text compression.

UNIT – 2 6 Hours Lossless Compression – 2: Dictionary Techniques: Overview; Introduction;

Static dictionary; Adaptive dictionary; Applications: UNIX compress, GIF, PNG, V.42.

Lossless image compression: Overview; Introduction; Basics; CALIC; JPEGLS; Multiresoution approaches; Facsimile encoding: Run-length coding, T.4 and T.6.

UNIT – 3 6 Hours Basics of Lossy Coding: Some mathematical concepts: Overview;

Introduction; Distortion criteria; Models.

Scalar quantization: Overview; Introduction; The quantization problem;

Uniform quantizer; Adaptive quantization.

UNIT – 4 7 Hours

**Vector Quantization, Differential Encoding: Vector quantization:**

Overview; Introduction; Advantages of vector quantization over scalar quantization; The LBG algorithm.

Differential Encoding: Overview; Introduction; The basic algorithm;

Prediction in DPCM; Adaptive DPCM; Delta modulation; Speech coding;

Image coding.

PART - B UNIT – 5 7 Hours Some Mathematical Concepts, Transform coding: Some mathematical concepts: Linear systems; Sampling; Discrete Fourier transform; Ztransform.

Transform coding: Overview; introduction; The transform; Transforms of interest; Quantization and coding for transform coefficients; Application to image compression – JPEG; Application to audio compression – MDCT.

UNIT – 6 6 Hours Subband Coding, Audio Coding: Subband Coding: Overview;

introduction; Filters; The basic subband coding algorithm; Bit allocation;

Application to speech coding – G.722; Application to audio coding – MPEG audio; Application to image compression.

Audio Coding: Overview; Introduction; MPEG audio coding; MPEG advanced audio coding; Dolby AC3; Other standards.

UNIT – 7 6 Hours Wavelet-Based Compression: Overview; Introduction; Wavelets;

Multiresolution and the scaling function; Implementation using Filters; Image compression; Embedded zerotree coder; Set partitioning in hierarchical trees;

JPEG 2000.

UNIT – 8 7 Hours Video Compression: Overview; Introduction; Motion compensation; Video signal representation; H.261; Model-based coding; Asymmetric applications;

MPEG-1 and MPEG-2; H.263; H.264, MPEG-4 and advanced video coding;

Packet video.

**Text Books:**

1. Khalid Sayood: Introduction to Data Compression, 3rd Edition, Elsevier, 2006. (Chapters 1, 2 excluding 2.2.1 and 2.4.3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.2.1, 3.8.2, 5, 7.1 to 7.5, 7.6, 7.6.1, 7.6.2, 8.1 to 8.3, 8.6, 9.1 to 9.5,

10.1 to 10.4, 11, 12.6 to 12.9, 13, 14.1 to 14.4, 14.9 to 14.12, 15, 16,

18.1 to 18.13)

**Reference Books:**

1. D. Salomon: Data Compression: The Complete Reference, Springer, 1998.

UNIT – 2 7 Hours Bayesian Decision Theory: Introduction, Bayesian Decision Theory;

Continuous Features, Minimum error rate, classification, classifiers, discriminant functions, and decision surfaces; The normal density;

Discriminant functions for the normal density.

UNIT – 3 7 Hours Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian Parameter Estimation: Introduction;

Maximum-likelihood estimation; Bayesian Estimation; Bayesian parameter estimation: Gaussian Case, general theory; Hidden Markov Models.

UNIT – 4 6 Hours Non-parametric Techniques: Introduction; Density Estimation; Parzen windows; kn – Nearest- Neighbor Estimation; The Nearest- Neighbor Rule;

Metrics and Nearest-Neighbor Classification.