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UNIT – 5 7 Hours Linear Discriminant Functions: Introduction; Linear Discriminant Functions and Decision Surfaces; Generalized Linear Discriminant Functions; The Two-Category Linearly Separable case; Minimizing the Perception Criterion Functions; Relaxation Procedures; Non-separable Behavior; Minimum Squared-Error procedures; The Ho-Kashyap procedures.

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UNIT – 7 6 Hours Non-Metric Methods: Introduction; Decision Trees; CART; Other Tree Methods; Recognition with Strings; Grammatical Methods.

UNIT – 8 7 Hours Unsupervised Learning and Clustering: Introduction; Mixture Densities and Identifiability; Maximum-Likelihood Estimates; Application to Normal Mixtures; Unsupervised Bayesian Learning; Data Description and Clustering;

Criterion Functions for Clustering.

Text Books:

1. Richard O. Duda, Peter E. Hart, and David G.Stork: Pattern Classification, 2nd Edition, Wiley-Interscience, 2001.

Reference Books:

1. Earl Gose, Richard Johnsonbaugh, Steve Jost: Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, PHI, Indian Reprint 2008.

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UNIT – 1 6 Hours Introduction – 1: Axioms of probability; Conditional probability and independence; Random variables; Expected value and variance; MomentGenerating Functions and Laplace Transforms; conditional expectation;

Exponential random variables.

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UNIT – 3 7 Hours Probability Bounds, Approximations, and Computations: Tail probability inequalities; The second moment and conditional expectation inequality;

probability bounds via the Importance sampling identity; Poisson random variables and the Poisson paradigm; Compound Poisson random variables.

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UNIT – 7 7 Hours Poisson Processes, Queuing Theory – 1: The non-stationary Poisson process; The stationary Poisson process; Some Poisson process computations; Classifying the events of a non-stationary Poisson process;

Conditional distribution of the arrival times Queuing Theory: Introduction; Preliminaries; Exponential models

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Text Books:

1. Sheldon M. Ross: Probability Models for Computer Science, Elsevier, 2002.

Reference Books:

1. B. R. Bhat: Stochastic Models Analysis and Applications, New Age International, 2000.

2. Scott L. Miller, Donald G. Childers: Probability and Random Processes with Applications to Signal Processing and Communications, Elsevier, 2004.

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UNIT – 1 7 Hours Introduction; Names, Scopes, and Bindings: The art of language design;

Programming language spectrum; Why study programming languages?

Compilation and interpretation; Programming environments.

Names, scope, and bindings: The notion of binding time; Object lifetime and storage management; Scope rules; Implementing scope; The meaning of names within a scope; The binding of referencing environments; Macro expansion.

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UNIT – 5 6 Hours Data Abstraction and Object Orientation: Object oriented programming;

Encapsulation and Inheritance; Initialization and finalization; Dynamic method binding; Multiple inheritance; Object oriented programming revisited.

UNIT – 6 7 Hours

Functional Languages, and Logic Languages: Functional Languages:

Origins; Concepts; A review/overview of scheme; Evaluation order revisited;

Higher-order functions; Functional programming in perspective. Logic Languages: Concepts; Prolog; Logic programming in perspective.

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Reference Books:

1. Ravi Sethi: Programming languages Concepts and Constructs, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 1996.

2. R Sebesta: Concepts of Programming Languages, 8th Edition, Pearson Education, 2008.

3. Allen Tucker, Robert Nonan: Programming Languages, Principles and Paradigms, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2007.


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Design, develop, and implement the following programs in C / C++

1. Program to recursively subdivide a tetrahedron to from 3D Sierpinski gasket. The number of recursive steps is to be specified by the user.

2. Program to implement Liang-Barsky line clipping algorithm.

3. Program to draw a color cube and spin it using OpenGL transformation matrices.

4. Program to create a house like figure and rotate it about a given fixed point using OpenGL functions.

5. Program to implement the Cohen-Sutherland line-clipping algorithm. Make provision to specify the input line, window for clipping and view port for displaying the clipped image.

6. Program to create a cylinder and a parallelepiped by extruding a circle and quadrilateral respectively. Allow the user to specify the circle and the quadrilateral.

7. Program, using OpenGL functions, to draw a simple shaded scene consisting of a tea pot on a table. Define suitably the position and properties of the light source along with the properties of the properties of the surfaces of the solid object used in the scene.

8. Program to draw a color cube and allow the user to move the camera suitably to experiment with perspective viewing. Use OpenGL functions.

9. Program to fill any given polygon using scan-line area filling algorithm. (Use appropriate data structures.)

10. Program to display a set of values {fij} as a rectangular mesh.

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1. Any question from Part A may be asked in the examination.

2. A report of about 10 – 12 pages on the package developed in Part B, duly certified by the department must be submitted during examination.


In the examination, one exercise from Part A is to be asked for a total of 30 marks. The package developed under Part B has to be evaluated for a total of 20 marks.

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2. Write a C/C++ POSIX compliant program that prints the POSIX defined configuration options supported on any given system using feature test macros.

3. Consider the last 100 bytes as a region. Write a C/C++ program to check whether the region is locked or not. If the region is locked, print pid of the process which has locked. If the region is not locked, lock the region with an exclusive lock, read the last 50 bytes and unlock the region.

4. Write a C/C++ program which demonstrates interprocess communication between a reader process and a writer process. Use mkfifo, open, read, write and close APIs in your program.

5. a) Write a C/C++ program that outputs the contents of its Environment list

b) Write a C / C++ program to emulate the unix ln command

6. Write a C/C++ program to illustrate the race condition.

7. Write a C/C++ program that creates a zombie and then calls system to execute the ps command to verify that the process is zombie.

8. Write a C/C++ program to avoid zombie process by forking twice.

9. Write a C/C++ program to implement the system function.

10. Write a C/C++ program to set up a real-time clock interval timer using the alarm API.

List of Experiments for Compiler Design: Design, develop, and execute the following programs.

11. Write a C program to implement the syntax-directed definition of “if E then S1” and “if E then S1 else S2”. (Refer Fig. 8.23 in the text book prescribed for 06CS62 Compiler Design, Alfred V Aho, Ravi Sethi, and Jeffrey D Ullman: Compilers- Principles, Techniques and Tools, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 2007).

12. Write a yacc program that accepts a regular expression as input and produce its parse tree as output.

Note: In the examination each student picks one question from the lot of all 12 questions.

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UNIT – 1 7 Hours Introduction, Modeling Concepts, class Modeling: What is Object Orientation? What is OO development? OO themes; Evidence for usefulness of OO development; OO modeling history Modeling as Design Technique: Modeling; abstraction; The three models.

Class Modeling: Object and class concepts; Link and associations concepts;

Generalization and inheritance; A sample class model; Navigation of class models; Practical tips.

UNIT – 2 6 Hours Advanced Class Modeling, State Modeling: Advanced object and class concepts; Association ends; N-ary associations; Aggregation; Abstract classes; Multiple inheritance; Metadata; Reification; Constraints; Derived data; Packages; Practical tips.

State Modeling: Events, States, Transitions and Conditions; State diagrams;

State diagram behavior; Practical tips.

UNIT – 3 6 Hours Advanced State Modeling, Interaction Modeling: Advanced State Modeling: Nested state diagrams; Nested states; Signal generalization;

Concurrency; A sample state model; Relation of class and state models;

Practical tips.

Interaction Modeling: Use case models; Sequence models; Activity models.

Use case relationships; Procedural sequence models; Special constructs for activity models.

UNIT – 4 7 Hours Process Overview, System Conception, Domain Analysis: Process Overview: Development stages; Development life cycle.

System Conception: Devising a system concept; Elaborating a concept;

Preparing a problem statement.

Domain Analysis: Overview of analysis; Domain class model; Domain state model; Domain interaction model; Iterating the analysis.

PART – B UNIT – 5 7 Hours Application Analysis, System Design: Application Analysis: Application interaction model; Application class model; Application state model; Adding operations.

Overview of system design; Estimating performance; Making a reuse plan;

Breaking a system in to sub-systems; Identifying concurrency; Allocation of sub-systems; Management of data storage; Handling global resources;

Choosing a software control strategy; Handling boundary conditions; Setting the trade-off priorities; Common architectural styles; Architecture of the ATM system as the example.

UNIT – 6 7 Hours

Class Design, Implementation Modeling, Legacy Systems: Class Design:

Overview of class design; Bridging the gap; Realizing use cases; Designing algorithms; Recursing downwards, Refactoring; Design optimization;

Reification of behavior; Adjustment of inheritance; Organizing a class design; ATM example.

Implementation Modeling: Overview of implementation; Fine-tuning classes;

Fine-tuning generalizations; Realizing associations; Testing.

Legacy Systems: Reverse engineering; Building the class models; Building the interaction model; Building the state model; Reverse engineering tips;

Wrapping; Maintenance.

UNIT – 7 6 Hours Design Patterns – 1: What is a pattern and what makes a pattern? Pattern categories; Relationships between patterns; Pattern description Communication Patterns: Forwarder-Receiver; Client-Dispatcher-Server;


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Text Books:

1. Michael Blaha, James Rumbaugh: Object-Oriented Modeling and Design with UML, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education, 2005.

(Chapters 1 to 17, 23)

2. Frank Buschmann, Regine Meunier, Hans Rohnert, Peter Sommerlad, Michael Stal: Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture, A System of Patterns, Volume 1, John Wiley and Sons, 2007.

(Chapters 1, 3.5, 3.6, 4)

Reference Books:

1. Grady Booch et al: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, 2007.

2. Brahma Dathan, Sarnath Ramnath: Object-Oriented Analysis, Design, and Implementation, Universities Press, 2009.

3. Hans-Erik Eriksson, Magnus Penker, Brian Lyons, David Fado:

UML 2 Toolkit, Wiley- Dreamtech India, 2004.

4. Simon Bennett, Steve McRobb and Ray Farmer: Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design Using UML, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2002.

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UNIT – 2 7 Hours Instruction Sets, CPUs: Preliminaries, ARM Processor, Programming Input and Output, Supervisor mode, Exceptions, Traps, Coprocessors, Memory Systems Mechanisms, CPU Performance, CPU Power Consumption. Design Example: Data Compressor.

UNIT – 3 6 Hours Bus-Based Computer Systems: CPU Bus, Memory Devices, I/O devices, Component Interfacing, Designing with Microprocessor, Development and Debugging, System-Level Performance Analysis Design Example: Alarm Clock.

UNIT – 4 7 Hours Program Design and Analysis: Components for embedded programs, Models of programs, Assembly, Linking and Loading, Basic Compilation Techniques, Program optimization, Program-Level performance analysis, Software performance optimization, Program-Level energy and power analysis, Analysis and optimization of program size, Program validation and testing. Design Example: Software modem.

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RTOS-Based Design - 2: Inter process Communication mechanisms, Evaluating OS performance, Choice of RTOS, Power Optimization. Design Example: Telephone Answering machine UNIT – 7 7 Hours Distributed Embedded Systems: Distributed Network Architectures, Networks for Embedded Systems: I2C Bus, CAN Bus, SHARC Link Ports,

Ethernet, Myrinet, Internet, Network Based Design. Design Example:

Elevator Controller.

UNIT – 8 7 Hours Embedded Systems Development Environment: The Integrated Development Environment, Types of File generated on Cross Compilation, Dis-assembler /Decompiler, Simulators, Emulators, and Debugging, Target Hardware Debugging.

Text Books:

1. Wayne Wolf: Computers as Components, Principles of Embedded Computing Systems Design, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, 2008.

2. Shibu K V: Introduction to Embedded Systems, Tata McGraw Hill, (Chapters 10, 13)

Reference Books:

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