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«Prepared by Dyfed Archaeological Trust For: Cambrian Mines Trust DYFED ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST RHIF YR ADRODDIAD / REPORT NO. 2013/77 RHIF Y DIGWYLLIAD ...»

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Prepared by Dyfed Archaeological Trust

For: Cambrian Mines Trust



RHIF Y DIGWYLLIAD / EVENT RECORD NO. 105883 Ebrill 2014 April 2014





Gan / By James Meek




Paratowyd yr adroddiad yma at ddefnydd y cwsmer yn unig. Ni dderbynnir cyfrifoldeb gan Ymddiriedolaeth Archaeolegol Dyfed Cyf am ei ddefnyddio gan unrhyw berson na phersonau eraill a fydd yn ei ddarllen neu ddibynnu ar y gwybodaeth y mae’n ei gynnwys The report has been prepared for the specific use of the client. Dyfed Archaeological Trust Limited can accept no responsibility for its use by any other person or persons who may read it or rely on the information it contains.

Ymddiriedolaeth Archaeolegol Dyfed Cyf Dyfed Archaeological Trust Limited Neuadd y Sir, Stryd Caerfyrddin, Llandeilo, Sir The Shire Hall, Carmarthen Street, Llandeilo, Gaerfyrddin SA19 6AF Carmarthenshire SA19 6AF Ffon: Ymholiadau Cyffredinol 01558 823121 Tel: General Enquiries 01558 823121 Adran Rheoli Treftadaeth 01558 823131 Heritage Management Section 01558 823131 Ffacs: 01558 823133 Fax: 01558 823133 Ebost: info@dyfedarchaeology.org.uk Email: info@dyfedarchaeology.org.uk Gwefan: www.archaeolegdyfed.org.uk Website: www.dyfedarchaeology.org.uk Cwmni cyfyngedig (1198990) ynghyd ag elusen gofrestredig (504616) yw’r Ymddiriedolaeth.

The Trust is both a Limited Company (No. 1198990) and a Registered Charity (No. 504616)



Cwmystwyth Mines, Ceredigion:

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The Cwmystwyth Mines site is one of national importance in terms of archaeological and heritage value, as well as for its ecology and biodiversity, and its geological importance. The site has evidence for 4000 years of mining, from the Bronze Age through to the early 20 th century.

In 2012 the Cwmystwyth Mines site was purchased by the Cambrian Mines Trust from Crown Estates, with the aim of improving accessibility to the site and providing more information to visitors on its significance, in terms of archaeology, ecology and geology. In 2013 Cadw and Ceredigion County Council (through Cynnal Y Cardi) provided funds for the development of a Management and Protection Plan for the site to develop ideas being put forward by the Cambrian Mines Trust in their ‘A Way Ahead’ document. This Plan has been developed by DAT Archaeological Services in partnership with the Cambrian Mines Trust. It has included consultation and input from members of Cadw, Ceredigion County Council, Natural Resources Wales and Dyfed Archaeological Trust. Further consultation has been undertaken with ecological specialists and mining historians.

The Cwmystwyth Mines site is one with a number of designations which are constraints to future works at the site, although not prohibitive. The majority of the site area owned by the Cambrian Mines Trust is recognised for its archaeological and historical importance and designated as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Its environmental importance is also recognised, with almost the entire site lying within the Elenydd Special Area of Conservation and the Elenydd Mallaen Special Protection Area. The site is also covered by the Elenydd and Mwyngloddfa Cwmystwyth Sites of Special Scientific Interest. These environmental designations protect the specialised flora which have developed across the area, some specifically within the former mines site; the fauna of the area including protected species such as bats which use the mine adits and levels, and the birds which nest in the upland areas of the site; and they also recognize the geological importance of the site in terms of both its physical geography and mineralisation. The above designations mean that before any works are undertaken at the site, whether above or below ground, relevant consents would be needed from the governing bodies, specifically Cadw and Natural Resources Wales. Relevant legislation is also discussed.

The present management regime across the site area is quite limited.

Graziers rights across the land are held by a number of the local farmers, which is acknowledged in the various ecological designations as something whereby livestock should be maintained at their present level to manage vegetation levels.

The site area is also monitored by graziers as they access the site to check on livestock. Local residents also regularly walk in the area and check on the site.

A number of factors are contributing to the deterioration of the site. these include misuse of the site by off road vehicles, fly tipping and vandalism. Further damage has occurred through the digging out of spoil tips for building materials.

These can all cause significant damage to the designated features and habitats.

Damage through erosion is also being caused by flash flooding, where streams are exposing archaeological remains, undermining structures and also eroding some of the contaminated fines and slimes dumps on the site, which leads to polluted material draining straight into the River Ystwyth. Below ground, the mine workings are also noticeably deteriorating through natural decay and

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movement. Underground revetment walls are failing and timber artefacts (supports, ladders, launders etc) are rotting.

The Cwmystwyth site is one of the main sources of pollution in the Ystwyth valley. Pollution from Pugh’s and Kingside adits are recognised as the two main sources on the site, with the eroding fines and slimes dumps also a notable cause.

Through this Plan, the aspirations of the Cambrian Mines Trust have been considered as a series of works which should be undertaken in the future for the positive benefits of the site and its future protection. These include erection of signage stating what the site is and that it is owned by the Cambrian Mines Trust;

interpretation boards (website and information leaflets) providing information on the significance of the site in terms of archaeology, ecology and geology, as well as the dangers of such sites to visitors; visitor management through improved parking and a defined footpath; management of the Nant Y Gwaith stream course to prevent further erosion and reduce pollution; and consolidation and repair to the impressive portals to Level Fawr and Taylor’s Level; management and improvement of access to below ground workings for surveyors, experienced mine explorers and researchers. These improvements are considered as the first Phase of a larger project to improve access and management of the site. This part of the Plan also discusses potential partners in the delivery of these project elements.

The plan discusses a second Phase of works at the site which should consider the longer term sustainability and management of the site area. This could include the development of a hydro-electric scheme built in a very similar location to the one that was used over 100 years ago at the site. The income generated from the scheme could be used to reinvest in the management of the Cwmystwyth Mines site. Further remediation and consolidation of other structures at the site, above and below ground, is also necessary as is continued research and recording of the archaeology, ecology and geology of the site. The continued promotion and education of visitors and school children to the area is also essential to ensure the site does not get neglected.

A range of potential funding sources are discussed within this plan for which the proposed works at Cwmystwyth would qualify for consideration, which include such sources as the Cefn Croes Wind Farm Community Trust Fund, the Esmee Fairburn Trust and the Heritage Lottery Fund.

The Plan also considers the various consents and permissions that will be needed to undertake any works at the site, such as Scheduled Monument and SSSI Consents and planning permission. The various designations will require a whole suite of initial surveys of the relevant areas of site and assessment of predicted impacts to be undertaken prior to consents or planning permission being granted. Obtaining the relevant permissions is definitely seen as possible as long as dialogue is continued during all stages of development and delivery of the eventual project, between the Cambrian Mines Trust and the various governing bodies. A list of relevant contacts has been provided, all of whom were consulted during the production of this document.

The Plan emphasises that the long term sustainability of the site must be considered in terms of being able to generate some form of income that can be used for future maintenance, repair and recording. The site provides further research opportunities into the environment (archaeology, ecology, geology, pollution) and future schemes of recording may come through the funding of such research.

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Mae safle Gwaith Mwyn Cwmystwyth o bwysigrwydd cenedlaethol wrth ystyried ei archaeoleg a'i dreftadaeth, ynghyd â'i ecoleg, ei fioamrywiaeth a'i bwysigrwydd daearegol. Mae yna dystiolaeth o fwyngloddio ar y safle ers 4000 mlynedd, o'r Oes Efydd tan yr 20fed ganrif.

Prynwyd y safle yn 2012 o Ystadau'r Goron gan Ymddiriedolaeth Mwyngloddiau Cambria, gyda'r bwriad o wella mynediad i'r safle a darparu mwy o wybodaeth i ymwelwyr ar ei archaeoleg, ei ecoleg a'i ddaeareg. Yn 2013 darparodd Cadw a Chyngor Sir Ceredigion (trwy Cynnal y Cardi) gyllideb i ddatblygu Cynllun Rheoli a Gwarchod ar gyfer y safle, er mwyn datblygu ar y syniadau a gynigir yn nogfen 'Ffordd Ymlaen' ('A Way Ahead') Ymddiriedolaeth Mwyngloddiau Cambria. Cynhwyswyd ymgynghoriadau a mewnbwn aelodau o Cadw, Cyngor Sir Ceredigion, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru ac Ymddiriedolaeth Archeolegol Dyfed. Ymgymerwyd ag ymgynghoriadau pellach gydag arbenigwyr ecolegol ac haneswyr mwyngloddiau.

Mae yna nifer o ddynodiadau sydd yn effeithio ar waith pellach ar safle Gwaith Mwyn Cwmystwyth, er nad ydynt yn waharddol. Cydnabyddir pwysigrwydd hanesyddol ac archeolegol y rhan fwyaf o'r tir sydd dan berchnogaeth Ymddiriedolaeth Mwyngloddiau Cambria gan ddynodiad Heneb Rhestredig. Cydnabyddir pwysigrwydd amgylcheddol y safle hefyd, gyda'r rhan fwyaf o'r safle yn syrthio tu fewn i ffiniau Ardal Gadwraeth Arbennig Elenydd ac Ardal Warchodaeth Arbennig Elenydd – Mallaen. Mae dynodiadau Safle o Ddiddordeb Gwyddonol Arbennig Elenydd a Mwyngloddfa Cwmystwyth hefyd yn perthyn i'r safle. Mae'r dynodiadau amgylcheddol hyn yn gwarchod y planhigion arbenigol sydd wedi datblygu yn yr ardal, rhai o'r rhain yn arbennig ar safle'r hen waith mwyn; mae ffawna'r ardal, gan gynnwys rhywogaethau dan warchodaeth megis ystlumod, yn defnyddio twneli a lefelau'r mwynglawdd, ac mae adar yn nythu ar ardaloedd ucheldirol y safle; maent hefyd yn cydnabod pwysigrwydd daearegol y safle o safbwynt ei ddaearyddiaeth materol a'i fwneiddiad. Golyga'r dynodiadau uchod bod yn rhaid derbyn y caniatadau perthnasol o'r cyrff llywodraethol, Cadw a Chyfoeth Naturiol Cymru yn benodol, cyn ymgymryd ag unrhyw waith, boed ar yr arwyneb neu dan y ddaear. Trafodir y ddeddfwriaeth berthnasol hefyd.

Mae'r gyfundrefn rheoli bresennol ar y safle yn eithaf cyfyng. Mae gan nifer o ffermwyr lleol hawliau pori dros y safle, a chydnabyddir yr angen i gynnal stocio ar y lefelau presennol er mwyn rheoli llystyfiant gan y diffiniadau amgylcheddol. Mae trigolion lleol yn cerdded yn yr ardal yn rheolaidd ac yn cadw llygad ar y safle.

Mae nifer o ffactorau yn cyfrannu i ddirywiad y safle, gan gynnwys camddefnyddio'r safle gan gerbydau oddi ar y ffordd, tipio sbwriel a fandaliaeth.

Gwnaed niwed pellach gan gloddio'r tomenni gwastraff ar gyfer deunyddiau adeiladu. Gall hyn oll greu niwed sylweddol i'r nodweddion a'r cynefinoedd dynodedig. Mae llifogydd brig hefyd yn erydu'r safle, gyda'r nentydd yn dadorchuddio olion archeolegol, yn tanseilio adeiladau ac yn erydu rhai o'r tomenni manion a slwtsh llygredig, mae hyn yn achosi deunyddiau llygredig i lifo'n syth i'r afon Ystwyth. Dan y ddaear, gwelir dirywiad yn strwythur y gloddfa o ganlyniad i bydredd naturiol a symudiad. Mae'r welydd cynnal yn y gloddfa yn methu ac mae arteffactau pren (cynhalbyst, ysgolion, landerau ayyb.) yn pydru.

Mae safle Cwmystwyth yn un o'r prif ffynonellau o lygredd yng nghwm yr Ystwyth. Cydnabyddir mae llygredd o geuffyrdd Pugh a Kingside yw'r ddau brif

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ffynhonnell ar y safle, gyda'r erydiad o'r tomenni manion a slwtsh yn ffynhonnell bwysig hefyd.

Trwy'r cynllun hwn, ystyrir ddyheadau Ymddiriedolaeth Mwyngloddiau Cambria yn gyfres o waith ar gyfer y dyfodol er budd y safle a'i warchodaeth yn y cyfnod nesaf. Mae'r rhain yn cynnwys codi arwyddion i nodi natur y safle a'i berchnogaeth gan Ymddiriedolaeth Mwyngloddiau Cambria; byrddau dehongli (gwefan a thaflenni gwybodaeth) i ddarparu gwybodaeth ar bwysigrwydd archeolegol, ecolegol a daearegol y safle, ynghyd â pheryglon safleoedd o'r fath hyn i ymwelwyr; rheoli ymwelwyr gan wella'r cyfleusterau parcio a chreu llwybr troed penodol; rheoli cwrs Nant y Gwaith er mwyn osgoi erydiad pellach a lleihau llygredd; a sefydlogi a thrwsio mynedfeydd nodedig Lefel Fawr a lefel Taylor;

rheoli a gwella mynediad tanddaearol ar gyfer arolygwyr, anturwyr mwyngloddiau profiadol ac ymchwilwyr. Ystyrir y gwelliannau hyn yn Gam cyntaf o brosiect ehangach ar gyfer gwella mynediad i'r safle a'i reolaeth. Trafodir partneriaid posib wrth weithredu'r elfennau hyn o'r prosiect yn y rhan hyn o'r cynllun.

Trafodir ail Gyfnod o waith yn y cynllun, dylai hwn ystyried cynaliadwyedd a rheolaeth hirdymor y safle. Gallai hyn gynnwys datblygu cynllun hydro-drydan ar safle agos iawn i'r un a ddefnyddiwyd dros 100 mlynedd yn ôl yn y gwaith.

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