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«Prepared by Dyfed Archaeological Trust For: Cambrian Mines Trust DYFED ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST RHIF YR ADRODDIAD / REPORT NO. 2013/77 RHIF Y DIGWYLLIAD ...»

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As the directors of CMT know the local graziers, this enables any issues to be reported to them, although only on an ad-hoc basis. The site is also watched by Duncan and Karen Browning owners of Nantwatcyn pottery, and friends of the CMT directors. They are aware that the land is used for off-roading by 4x4 vehicles, but can only advise that off-roading is not permitted in terms of the archaeological and environmental designations of the site.

13.5 The site is deteriorating noticeably. This occurs above ground from misuse of the site, such as access by off road vehicles driving across spoil tips disturbing protected habitats under the environmental statutory designations and also archaeological remains protected by Scheduling. Fly tipping occurs at the site, both of domestic rubbish, but also of building materials. Similarly some of the spoil heaps, protected by the various designations, have previously been dug into and removed for hardcore. Graffiti is evident on a number of the standing structures, especially at the western end of the site, Neville Place and Staff House.

13.6 Erosion and damage is also being caused above ground by flash flooding.

This is most evident in the mill area of the site where the stream course of Nant y Gwaith has splayed out at the base of the hillside, causing significant erosion to archaeological remains, including the undermining of one of the buildings. This stream course has also eroded fines and slimes dumps on the site, and polluted material is draining straight into the Ystwyth.

13.7 Below ground, the mine workings are noticeably deteriorating. Recording undertaken by Robert Protheroe-Jones since the 1980s has shown significant differences in the stability of some of the stopes, many of which have now partially collapsed. Underground revetment walls are failing and timber artefacts (supports, ladders, launders etc) are rotting.

13.8 The Cwmystwyth site is one of the main sources of pollution in the Ystwyth valley. Pollution from Pugh’s and Kingside adits are recognised as the two main sources on the site, with the eroding fines and slimes dumps also a notable cause.

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13.9 The preparation of the Management and Protection Plan for the Cwmystwyth Mines site has identified the significance of the site in terms of its statutory designations and the responsibilities these put upon the owners of the site where any works are proposed. The document outlines the various procedures that will need to be followed to consents and permissions to take works forward.

13.10 Through this Plan, the aspirations of the Cambrian Mines Trust have been considered as a series of works which should be undertaken in the future for the positive benefits of the site and its future protection.

13.11 By implementing schemes of visitor management, including the prevention of unauthorised vehicle access the specialised habitats that have established on the spoil heaps should be better protected from disturbance. The spoil heaps are also important elements of the heritage of the site. Management of the Nant Y Gwaith stream course will improve access to the site, and will also prevent further erosion of spoil heaps and archaeological remains in the mill area of the site. This will also reduce pollution into the River Ystwyth.

13.12 The advancement of education about the site is one of the main aims of CMT and the Plan suggested ways in which this could be provided. New interpretation boards are proposed to provide information on the heritage, ecology and geology of the Cwmystwyth, as well as informing visitors about the dangers of such sites. Information leaflets should be produced which could be made available in retail establishments in the area. CMT presently have their own website with information on Cwmystwyth, but this could be enhanced or a new dedicated Cwmystwyth Mines website established, following the design and style of the interpretation boards/information leaflets. Other ways of improving education about the site could be provided by developing exhibition materials or education packs which could be taken to various venues around the area to promote the site to the community, school children and visitors to the area. It is essential that the next and subsequent generations are informed about the significance of the Cwmystwyth Mines site to sustain interest and ensure its protection in the future, both above and below-ground.

13.13 It is proposed that a two phase scheme of work is developed in detail for the site to include The Cwmystwyth Mines Access and Interpretation Phase (Phase 1) as the initial way forward for the site. The project combines the Aspirational Items 1 to 7 (discussed in section 9). The development of longer term aspirations for the site should also be developed as Phase 2 of this project, which should aim to enable the site to have a sustainable future, possibly generating income which can be used in future management and maintenance work. It is suggested that this could include not only the hydro-electric scheme (perhaps developed as a CMT led project), but also further remediation of structures at the site to improve safety and their long term preservation. Many of the buildings on the western side of the site have already been subject to some remediation works undertaken by Crown estate, but there are many others across the site area including a number of very interesting stone built ones (including hoppers used to load trams) on Copa Hill which would be well worth consolidating to prevent further deterioration.

13.14 More details on the project will need to be developed and then discussed in detail with Cadw, Ceredigion County Council and NRW to confirm the extent of any initial surveys that might be needed prior to application for consents/planning being put together. Initial surveys and impact assessments for lichens, bats and archaeology could then be done as a combined task, focussing on each of the areas of impact. Such works may be able to be funded through the developmentstage of the HLF Heritage Grant funding source (if this grant source is considered appropriate and application is successful).

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13.15 The Cwmystwyth Mines site provides many opportunities for collaborative working with mining specialists, mine explorers/cavers, archaeological, ecological and geological specialists, as well as working with the local community to promote this very important part of the regions cultural and natural heritage.

The importance of the site must be made known to future generations, and the interest in it sustained.

13.16 The long term sustainability of the site must also be considered in terms of being able to generate some form of income that can be used for future maintenance, repair and recording. Other than the possibilities discussed above, the site provides research opportunities into the environment (archaeology, ecology, geology, pollution) and future schemes of recording may come through funding of such research.

13.17 The long term future of the Cambrian Mines Trust is also important for the long term future of the site. It may be that the Trust could recruit new members, and ideally including members of the local community and especially the graziers who already have a vested interest in the site. The Trust could work with existing local groups and societies to promote the site and encourage participation in future projects at the site, whether those suggested within this document or future projects and studies. Considerable local interest in the future of the site is evident from the attendance at the Community Event organised during the course of this project. It might be worth considering establishing a local group or society associated directly with or even part of the Cambrian Mines Trust.

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14.1 Cydnabyddir bod safle Gwaith Mwyn Cwmystwyth o bwysigrwydd cenedlaethol wrth ystyried ei archaeoleg a'i dreftadaeth, ynghyd â'i ecoleg a'i fioamrywiaeth a'i bwysigrwydd daearegol. Mae yna dystiolaeth o fwyngloddio ar y safle ers 4000 mlynedd, o'r Oes Efydd tan yr 20 fed ganrif.

14.2 Prynwyd y safle yn 2012 o Ystadau'r Goron gan Ymddiriedolaeth Mwyngloddiau Cambria, gyda'r bwriad o wella mynediad i'r safle a darparu mwy o wybodaeth ar gyfer ymwelwyr ar ei archaeoleg, ei ecoleg a'i ddaeareg.

14.3 Mae'r rhan fwyaf o'r tir sydd dan berchnogaeth Ymddiriedolaeth Mwyngloddiau Cambria wedi ei ddynodi yn Heneb Rhestredig. Mae'r ardal dan berchnogaeth YMC bron yn gyfan gwbl yn rhan o Ardal Gadwraeth Arbennig Elenydd, mae'r rhan fwyaf ohono yn rhan o Ardal Warchodaeth Arbennig Elenydd – Mallaen, ac mae'n rhan o ddynodiadau Safle o Ddiddordeb Gwyddonol Arbennig Elenydd a Mwyngloddfa Cwmystwyth. Mae'r rhain yn ddynodiadau statudol i warchod archaeoleg, ecoleg a daeareg y safle.

14.4 Mae'r rheolaeth bresennol o'r safle yn eithaf cyfyng. Mae gan nifer o ffermwyr lleol hawliau pori dros y safle, a chydnabyddir yr angen i gynnal y lefelau stocio presennol er mwyn rheoli'r llystyfiant gan y dynodiadau amgylcheddol. Mae'r porwyr hefyd yn monitro'r safle wrth iddynt ei dramwyo i ofalu am eu praidd. Gan fod cyfarwyddwyr YMC yn gyfarwydd i'r porwyr lleol, mae hyn yn galluogi i unrhyw faterion gael eu hadrodd a'u nodi, er ar sail ad-hoc yn unig. Mae perchnogion crochendy Nantwatcyn, Duncan a Karen Browning, hefyd yn gwylio'r safle ac maent yn gyfeillion i gyfarwyddwyr YMC. Maent yn ymwybodol bod cerbydau 4x4 yn defnyddio'r tir, ond yr unig beth y gallant ei wneud yw hysbysu'r gyrwyr nad oes yna ganiatâd iddynt ddefnyddio'r tir ar gyfer y fath weithgareddau o ganlyniad i'r dynodiadau archeolegol ac ecolegol sydd ar y safle.

14.5 Mae yna ddirywiad amlwg yng nghyflwr y safle. Ar yr arwyneb mae hyn yn digwydd o ganlyniad i'r camddefnydd o'r safle, er enghraifft gan gerbydau oddi-ar y ffordd yn gyrru dros y tomenni gwastraff gan darfu ar y cynefinoedd a warchodir gan ddynodiadau amgylcheddol statudol ac olion archeolegol Rhestredig. Mae pobl yn tipio sbwriel brig ar y safle, o wastraff cartref i ddeunyddiau adeiladu. Mae rhai o'r tomenni gwastraff, a warchodir gan amryw ddynodiadau, wedi eu cloddio ar gyfer craidd caled yn y gorffennol. Gwelir graffiti ar nifer o'r adeiladau, yn enwedig ar ochr orllewinol y safle, ar Neville Place a'r Tŷ Staff.

14.6 Achosir erydiad a difrod ar yr arwyneb hefyd gan lifogydd brig. Mae hyn fwyaf amlwg yn ardal y felin lle mae Nant y Gwaith yn ymledu ar waelod y llethr, gan erydu'r olion archeolegol yn sylweddol, gan gynnwys tanseilio rhai o'r adeiladau. Mae'r nant hefyd wedi erydu'r tomenni manion a slwtsh, ac mae deunydd llygredig yn llifo'n uniongyrchol i'r Ystwyth.

14.7 Dan y ddaear, mae yna ddirywiad amlwg yng nghyflwr y gwaith. Mae'r gwaith cofnodi a wnaed gan Robert Protheroe-Jones ers y 1980au yn dangos gwahaniaethau sylweddol yn sefydlogrwydd rhai o'r stobau; mae nifer o'r rhain bellach wedi cwympo yn rhannol. Mae welydd cynnal yn y gloddfa yn methu ac mae arteffactau pren (cynhalbyst, ysgolion, landerau ayyb) yn pydru.

14.8 Mae safle Cwmystwyth yn un o'r prif ffynonellau o lygredd yng nghwm yr Ystwyth. Cydnabyddir mae llygredd o geuffyrdd Pugh a Kingside yw'r ddau brif ffynhonnell ar y safle, gyda'r erydiad o'r tomenni manion a slwtsh yn ffynhonnell bwysig hefyd.

14.9 Mae paratoi'r Cynllun Rheoli a Gwarchod ar gyfer Gwaith Mwyn Cwmystwyth wedi adnabod pwysigrwydd y safle o safbwynt y dynodiadau

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statudol sydd arno a'r cyfrifoldebau y mae'r rhain yn gosod ar berchnogion y safle wrth gynnig ymgymryd ag unrhyw waith. Mae'r ddogfen yn amlinelli'r gwahanol weithdrefnau sydd yn rhaid eu dilyn er mwyn derbyn hawl a chaniatâd weithio ar y safle.

14.10 Trwy'r cynllun hwn, ystyrir dymuniadau Ymddiriedolaeth Mwyngloddiau Cambria yn gyfres o waith ar gyfer y dyfodol er budd y safle a'i warchodaeth yn y cyfnod nesaf.

14.11 Gan weithredu ar gynlluniau i reoli ymwelwyr, gan gynnwys rhwystro mynediad i'r cynefinoedd arbenigol ar y tomenni gwastraff gan gerbydau heb ganiatâd, dylai'r cynefinoedd hyn cael eu diogelu yn well rhag difrod. Mae'r tomenni gwastraff hefyd yn elfennau pwysig o dreftadaeth y safle. Bydd rheoli cwrs Nant y Gwaith yn gwella mynediad i'r safle, ac yn atal erydiad pellach o'r tomenni gwastraff a'r olion archeolegol yn ardal y felin. Bydd hyn hefyd yn lleihau'r llygredd yn yr afon Ystwyth.

14.12 Mae dyrchafu addysg ar y safle yn un o brif amcanion YMC ac mae'r cynllun yn cynnig dulliau i ddarparu ar gyfer hyn. Cynigir byrddau dehongli newydd er mwyn darparu gwybodaeth ar dreftadaeth, ecoleg a daeareg Gwaith Mwyn Cwmystwyth, ynghyd â hysbysu ymwelwyr o beryglon safleoedd fel hwn.

Dylid gynhyrchu taflenni gwybodaeth, a gallent fod ar gael mewn safleoedd manwerthu yn yr ardal. Mae gan YMC wefan ei hunan ar hyn o bryd, sydd yn cynnwys gwybodaeth ar Gwmystwyth, ond gellid ei wella neu gellid greu gwefan benodol ar gyfer Gwaith Mwyn Cwmystwyth, gan ddilyn dyluniad ac arddull y byrddau dehongli/taflenni gwybodaeth. Gallai dulliau eraill o wella'r cyfleoedd addysgol ar y safle gynnwys datblygu deunyddiau i'w harddangos neu becynnau addysgol i'w defnyddio mewn nifer o leoliadau yn yr ardal er mwyn hyrwyddo'r safle i'r gymuned, plant ysgol ac ymwelwyr i'r ardal. Mae'n hollbwysig bod y genhedlaeth nesaf a'r rhai a ddaw ar ei ôl yn ymwybodol o bwysigrwydd Gwaith Mwyn Cwmystwyth, er mwyn cynnal diddordeb yn y safle a sicrhau gwarchodaeth ar ei gyfer yn y dyfodol, boed ar yr arwyneb neu dan y ddaear.

14.13 Cynigir y dylid ddatblygu cynllun gwaith dwy ran manwl ar gyfer y safle, gan gynnwys Cam Mynediad a Dehongli Gwaith Mwyn Cwmystwyth (Cam 1) yn ffordd ymlaen cychwynnol ar ei gyfer. Mae'r prosiect yn cyfuno Eitemau Dymunol 1 I 7 (a drafodir yn adran 9). Dylid ddatblygu dymuniadau mwy hirdymor ar gyfer y safle yn Gam 2 o'r prosiect hwn, dylai hwn ystyried darparu dyfodol cynaliadwy ar ei gyfer, o bosib gan gynnig incwm i'w ddefnyddio ar gyfer gwaith rheoli a cynnal a chadw'r safle yn y dyfodol. Cynigir y gallai hyn gynnwys y cynllun hydrodrydan (efallai wedi ei ddatblygu yn brosiect dan arweiniad YMC), ond hefyd gwaith i sefydlogi adeiledd y safle, ei wneud yn fwy diogel a sicrhau ei hiroes.

Ymgymerodd Ystadau'r Goron â gwaith sefydlogi ar nifer o'r adeiladau ar ochr orllewinol y safle, ond mae yna nifer eraill ar y safle, gan gynnwys nifer o adeileddau carreg (fel yr hoprod i lwytho troliau) ar Copa Hill sydd yn werth eu cyfnerthu er mwyn atal dirywiad pellach.

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