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«Prepared by Dyfed Archaeological Trust For: Cambrian Mines Trust DYFED ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST RHIF YR ADRODDIAD / REPORT NO. 2013/77 RHIF Y DIGWYLLIAD ...»

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Photo showing mill area of mines and possible location for information panels along front wall (shown as an example of what they could look like)

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ITEM 3: Improvement of the area adjacent to the B4574 to the south of the mill Item 3A: Managing the stream course Construction of a stream culvert to prevent ongoing erosion of archaeology and buildings in the area directly north of the road.

The stream course is also eroding a fines dump to the north of the road, which was formerly protected by a dry stone wall. It is also eroding the slimes spoil tip to the south of the road which is a major source of contaminants into the river.

Re-routing part of the stream outflow into the former Mill Tailrace, following archaeological investigation to confirm its route on the northern side of the road.

Dry stone revetment walls adjacent to eroding fines and slimes dumps could be constructed to mitigate against further erosion of these sources of contamination into the River Ystwyth.

Aims: To direct and manage the flow of the stream course which is presently a wide and irregular channel which changes with heavy rain fall and prevent further erosion and pollution. Improve accessibility into the site area.

Benefits: Prevent further undermining of the surviving walls of the fines store south of the mill building. Prevent further erosion of unidentified archaeological remains which are being eroded within the stream course. Prevent further erosion of the slimes dump on the southern side of the road which is directly polluting the River Ystwyth.

Cost: The management of the stream course could be a considerable cost, depending on the agreed methodology. Not only would there be the cost of the actual construction works, but there would also be costs for initial surveys and subsequent mitigation, such as for archaeological remains, but also lichens.

Costs would be over £20,000 for all necessary works. Hydrology and geotechnical surveys would be needed to assess potential environmental or hydrological impacts from changes to the stream course and also to determine whether the mill tail race can be used. Costs could be around £10,000 combined for Items 3A and 3B for archaeological surveys and mitigation.

Key Issues: The works will require SMC and relevant consents from NRW. For archaeology this will likely require preliminary surveys and possible evaluation to determine what remains are present and will be disturbed, to be undertaken prior to the construction works commencing. Subsequent mitigation measures may also need to be implemented, which could involve excavation. The route of the stream course beyond the culverted area would need to be discussed with NRW in terms of its diverted flow into the Ystwyth. Bat survey of the mill tailrace would be needed to ensure that diversion of the stream would not impact upon bat roosts. This could include seasonal restrictions on works being undertaken.

Planning permission would be needed as it would involve construction works.

Discussions would be needed with Highways due to the culvert running under the road.

Partners: Initial surveys of the area may be able to be done by the RCAHMW or by an archaeological contractor. Impact assessments of the work could be compiled by an archaeological contractor working in conjunction with CMT and members of WMPT to ascertain likely impacts. Lichen surveys by specialist Steve Chambers. CMT could prepare the application for consents from Cadw and NRW and planning application through Ceredigion County Council. Discussions would be needed with Highways as stream will be culverted under the road. Third party contractors would be needed to undertake hydrology, geotechnical surveys and for its construction (ideally a local contractor). There may be opportunities through the implementation of this project to work with NRW in order to address

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Item 3B: Managing access to the mill area of the site Construction of a dedicated pathway on the northern side of the B4574 to direct pedestrians from the parking area to the south of the road up to the mill area.

The proposed route would run along the eastern edge of the former stores building that lies to the south of the mill.

Aims: Management of access for the general public within the site, directing them to the mill area and the interpretation boards.

Benefits: Reduce erosion of ecologically sensitive spoil heaps and archaeologically sensitive remains.

Cost: The type of construction of the desired footpath would obviously dictate the level of costs. The costs for simple path construction would range from around £40 to £50 per metre, but the ground level where the pathway is proposed is very uneven so additional levelling would be necessary. As with the stream management, there would also be costs for initial surveys and subsequent mitigation, such as for archaeological remains and lichens. These surveys would be undertaken at the same time as those for Item 3A as they are located in the same areas. Costs could be around £10,000 combined for Items 3A and 3B for archaeological surveys and mitigation.

Key Issues: The works will require SMC and relevant consents from NRW. For archaeology this will likely require preliminary surveys and possible evaluation to determine what remains are present and will be disturbed, to be undertaken prior to the construction works commencing (again in the same phase of works as for Item 3A). Subsequent mitigation measures may also need to be implemented, which could involve excavation. Planning permission would be needed as it would involve construction works.





Partners: Initial surveys of the area may be able to be done by the RCAHMW or by an archaeological contractor. Impact assessments of the work could be compiled by an archaeological contractor working in conjunction with CMT and members of WMPT to ascertain likely impacts. Lichen surveys by specialist Steve Chambers. CMT could prepare the application for consents from Cadw and NRW and planning application through Ceredigion County Council. Discussions with Highways may be needed as the path will lead from the road. Third party contractor would be needed to construct the path, ideally local contractor.

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ITEM 4: Improved Car Parking across the site area This would include improvements to the car parking area opposite the mill site, where modern fly tipped rubble heaps could be levelled to create a larger car parking area whilst maintaining the required farm turning circle.

Areas where parking or vehicle access is not allowed to be defined by the strategic placing of larger boulders (of local stone) which would also deter offroading.

Re-grading of the sloping car park at Nant Yr Onnen – the level of which seems to have been made up and expanded fairly recently for council use when the existing road bridge was rebuilt.

Aims: Improving accessibility to the site for the general public and provision of better parking. Improve the managed appearance of the site.

Benefits: Increase the visitor numbers for the site and thus enable more people to learn about the significance of the heritage, ecology and geology of the site.

Removal of unsightly modern fly tipped rubble dumps. Reduce parking on ecologically or archaeologically sensitive areas of the site. Prevent off road vehicles.

Cost: Much of the proposed works would involve minimal ground disturbance, merely levelling fly tipped rubble heaps or levelling surface material across parking areas. Much of this work could be done relatively cheaply with contractor and JCB, costing around £200 to £300 per day. Materials needed for surfacing would be under £500, and additional costs may be needed to purchase boulders which can be used to prevent unauthorised access. There would also be costs for initial surveys and subsequent mitigation, such as for archaeological remains and lichens (although it is unlikely these would be too much of an issue for these areas).

Key Issues: The works will require SMC (where within the Scheduled area) and relevant consents from NRW. Where materials are to be imported (surface materials and boulders) there may be restrictions on what can be used, which would need to be discussed with NRW and the planning authority. It is not possible to use material from the historic spoil tips as these are protected both as part of the SAM as well as the SAC and SSSI. Planning consent would be needed for any construction works, where significant alterations are proposed. Consents from Highways would be needed, and where any where signage is proposed. The existing car parking areas are all quite restricted in size due to constraints from their location, but numbers of potential parking spaces made available may need to be considered for grant applications. Overnight parking restrictions may be applicable.

Partners: Initial surveys of the area may be able to be done by the RCAHMW or by an archaeological contractor. Impact assessments of the work could be compiled by an archaeological contractor working in conjunction with CMT and members of WMPT to ascertain likely impacts. Lichen surveys by specialist Steve Chambers. CMT could prepare the application for consents from Cadw and NRW and planning application through Ceredigion County Council. Discussions with Highways would be needed. Third party contractor would be needed to construct the parking areas (ideally a local firm).

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Approximate location of car parking areas to be improved (red circles) Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 scale Explorer Map with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright Dyfed Archaeological Trust, The Shire Hall, Carmarthen Street, Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire SA19 6AF. Licence No 100020930

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ITEM 5: Re-opening of the original track to the mine yard The present track way entrance is located adjacent to Nevill Place and has been blocked off with dumps of stone to prevent unauthorised access. It is proposed that these are removed and a gated entrance constructed. Boulders would also be strategically placed to prevent off-road access.

Aims: Construction of new gated access to the track way that leads to the mine yard. All farmers with grazing rights to the land would have means of opening the gate.

Benefits: Improve the appearance of the mine track way entrance. Deter unauthorised vehicles from accessing the site area. Improve accessibility for local farmers and also for any vehicles required on the site for future works associated with the Trust (if needed).

Cost: Removal of existing modern rubble tip barriers and movement of boulders could be done cheaply with contractor and JCB, costing around £200 - £300 per day. Cost of gate could be between £200 to £500, plus costs for fixing gateposts, erection and lock for the gate. There would also be costs for initial surveys and subsequent mitigation, such as for archaeological remains and lichens (although it is unlikely these would be too much of an issue for this item).

Key Issues: The works will require SMC and relevant consents from NRW. The type of gate or barrier to be used and how it will look in the landscape will be important issues in terms of the Scheduled Monument and further discussions with Cadw as to suitability will be needed. The stone boulders to be used to prevent off road parking / driving would need to be approved by NRW and Cadw.

Partners: Initial surveys of the area may be able to be done by the RCAHMW or by an archaeological contractor. Impact assessments of the work could be compiled by an archaeological contractor working in conjunction with CMT and members of WMPT to ascertain likely impacts. Lichen surveys by specialist Steve Chambers. CMT could prepare the application for consents from Cadw and NRW and planning application through Ceredigion County Council. Third party contractor would be needed to construct the gateway and move boulders, ideally a local contractor.

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ITEM 6: Restoration of the portal to Level Fawr and improvement of underground access The present portal to Level Fawr is suffering from degradation. The original plaque and the subsequent replica have been removed from the site. It is intended that the portal will be restored and a new plaque erected.

As part of these works improvements to the underground access would be undertaken to facilitate authorised access for longer term essential underground maintenance and remediation work on the historic remains, as well as enabling future recording projects.

Aims: To restore the portal entrance and erect a replica plaque above the entrance. Facilitate materials and equipment being able to be taken into the mine for recording and research.

Benefits: Improvement to the outward appearance of Level Fawr, perhaps the best known of the adit entrances into the mine. Enable longer term maintenance and remediation projects of the ever deteriorating below ground remains in the mine. Enable the implementation of programmes of recording work both for the archaeology and ecology of the below ground site.

Cost: Initial condition surveys would be needed, both for archaeology and structural purposes. Works would then include re-pointing of portal and some areas of rebuilding (drystone and mortared). The actual works to the portal could be around £5000 with additional costs for initial archaeological surveys and monitoring during works (perhaps around £2500). Initial bat and lichen surveys would be needed.

Costs for undertaking improvement to access below ground are very difficult to ascertain. Much of this work could be done by experienced mine and cave explorers as voluntary works, but insurance and health and safety will still be of paramount importance and could have substantial costs to ensure it is in place.

Such works could disturb bats and so there will be seasonal restrictions on the works.

In the longer term, costs for carrying out schemes of recording of the archaeology and maintenance work below ground may be minimal as could be undertaken by volunteer support, with occasional costs for larger below-ground recording projects. For bats there will be survey costs and for monitoring equipment.



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