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«Prepared by Dyfed Archaeological Trust For: Cambrian Mines Trust DYFED ARCHAEOLOGICAL TRUST RHIF YR ADRODDIAD / REPORT NO. 2013/77 RHIF Y DIGWYLLIAD ...»

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Key Issues: The works will require SMC and relevant consents from NRW. As it is conservation work to an existing structure it is unlikely planning consent would be needed, but should be discussed with Ceredigion County Council. Disturbance to protected species are significant issues for these works and could have seasonal restrictions. If lichens are present discussions will be needed with NRW to ensure that the works do not disturb them, and ideally further suitable habitat created by ensuring mortar for pointing would be suitable for colonisation.

For works to improve the access below ground, health and safety method statements and insurance will need to be in place. The works will require SMC and relevant consents from NRW. Seasonal restrictions on the works due to bats are very likely. The works should not impact upon ventilation or changes in humidity within the underground workings. It is essential that these works ensure that casual public access to the mines is not possible. Managed access will still be possible for approved and experienced visitors through CMT. Access to the mines is recognised as essential within the SSSI designation.

Longer term below ground recording programmes of work will be undertaken by volunteers or contractors experienced in working in such conditions and with appropriate insurances and safety equipment.

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Partners: Initial surveys of the area may be able to be done by the RCAHMW or by an archaeological contractor. Impact assessments of the work could be compiled by an archaeological contractor working in conjunction with CMT and members of WMPT to ascertain likely impacts. Lichen surveys by specialist Steve Chambers. Bat surveys by licensed bat expert. CMT could prepare the application for consents from Cadw and NRW and undertake discussions with Ceredigion County Council. Third party contractor would be needed to carry out the consolidation works.

Longer term recording works below ground would be undertaken by licensed bat experts with appropriate experience and equipment. Archaeological recording below ground could be undertaken by specialist firms such as Deri Jones & Associates Ltd. The directors of CMT, Robert Protheroe-Jones and other members of WMPT could be involved in below ground recording works, maintenance and consolidation works.

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ITEM 7: Restoration and improvement to the packwall entranceway and portal to Taylor’s Level Removal of the existing metal grill barrier which is fixed to the exterior of the portal and restoration of the dry stone walling around the packwall entrance leading from Nant Yr Onnen.

A new gateway would be constructed hidden within the entrance to the level, preventing unauthorised access.

Aims: To improve the outward appearance of this adit level by removing the existing inappropriately placed grill.

Benefits: Outward appearance of Taylor’s Level is improved and the dry stone walls consolidated for the future.

Cost: Initial condition surveys would be needed, both for archaeology and structural purposes. Works would then include re-pointing of portal and some areas of rebuilding (drystone and mortared). The actual works to the portal could be around £5000 with additional costs for initial archaeological surveys and monitoring during works (perhaps around £2500). Initial bat and lichen surveys would be needed. There would be additional costs for a new gate and also for installation within the adit. It is not intended to improve access into this adit.

Key Issues: The works will require SMC and relevant consents from NRW. As it is conservation work to an existing structure it is unlikely planning consent would be needed, but should be discussed with Ceredigion County Council. Disturbance to protected species are significant issues for these works and could have seasonal restrictions. If lichens are present discussions will be needed with NRW to ensure that the works do not disturb them, and ideally further suitable habitat created by ensuring mortar for pointing would be suitable for colonisation.

Health and safety method statements and insurance will need to be in place to erect the new gate within the adit entrance. This work will require SMC and relevant consents from NRW. Seasonal restrictions on the works due to bats is very likely. The works should not impact upon ventilation or changes in humidity within the mine. It is essential that these works ensure that casual public access to the mines is not possible.

Partners: Initial surveys of the area may be able to be done by the RCAHMW or by an archaeological contractor. Impact assessments of the work could be compiled by an archaeological contractor working in conjunction with CMT and members of WMPT to ascertain likely impacts. Lichen surveys by specialist Steve Chambers. Bat surveys by licensed bat expert. CMT could prepare the application for consents from Cadw and NRW and undertake discussions with Ceredigion County Council. Third party contractor would be needed to carry out the consolidation works and installation of the new gate. Volunteer support may be possible with the rebuilding of the dry stone walling.

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ITEM 8: Working with Natural Resources Wales for any future water treatment works at the site Natural Resources Wales have identified Cwmystwyth as a major source of pollution into the River Ystwyth. The water draining from Pugh’s Level at the eastern end of the site is one of the main sources of pollution. NRW are looking into the possibilities of a water treatment works to remediate the pollution from Pugh’s Level and possibly the nearby Kingside Level, although the available land downstream of the adit may not be large enough for a suitable water treatment works.





The Cambrian Mines Trust will work with NRW to ascertain if a workable solution can be achieved and grant them landowner permission to build such a works at the site. The Trust will also work with NRW to ensure that any future schemes would not compromise any proposed or completed site improvement works implemented by the Trust.

Aims: To work with NRW to allow them to build a water treatment works on Trust land to reduce pollution flowing into the River Ystwyth. Public access to the area would be maintained after its completion and educationally appropriate signage erected.

Benefits: Reduced pollution.

Costs: Will be borne by NRW.

Key Issues: The works will require SMC (if within the Scheduled area) and relevant consents from NRW. Planning consent would be needed. These will be addressed by NRW.

Partners: CMT will provide full support to the works. Opportunities should be considered where the water treatment works could be combined with the managing of the stream course (Item 3A) or alternatively, if the large scale water treatment works are not possible, perhaps NRW might consider supporting Item 3B in order to address pollution at the site (albeit on a smaller scale).

Water draining from Pugh’s Level (iron oxide causing the red colouration)

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Location of Pugh’s Level entrance (red circle) and potential NRW water treatment area (green) Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 scale Explorer Map with the permission of The Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, © Crown Copyright Dyfed Archaeological Trust, The Shire Hall, Carmarthen Street, Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire SA19 6AF. Licence No 100020930

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ITEM 9: Rebuilding of Neville Place and Staff House Longer term projects could include the rebuilding of Nevill Place and Staff House into residential properties or accommodation for visitors to the site.

The item is very much in the early stages of discussion. It is probable that planning legislation may mean the scheme would not be granted planning permission. Both properties are presently in unsightly and possibly dangerous states and clean up or stabilisation of the remains should be considered if rebuilding is not permitted.

Aims: To provide an investment and possible income source for the Trust. To prevent further collapse and degradation of the buildings.

Benefits: Have increased occupation at the mine site to assist with management and monitoring.

Costs: Substantial costs would be required (£200,000) for works to include initial surveys and recording of archaeology and ecology, and costs of actual construction.

Key Issues: The works will require SMC and relevant consents from NRW.

Planning consent would be needed, but is unlikely to be granted. It is also likely that SMC would not be granted. The aim of this task would provide a future income for CMT, whether via rents or by selling the properties, which would assist with making future management and improvement works at the site more sustainable. The opinions of the community on this aspiration would be very important.

Partners: An archaeological contractor would need to be employed to undertake surveys, as would bat and lichen specialists to carry out preliminary surveys.

There would be costs for architects, structural engineers as well as third party contractors for the build.

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ITEM 10: Hydro-Electric Scheme A private company has expressed an interest in the site area for the construction of a hydro-electric scheme. The scheme would follow the line of the former hydro-power scheme that was used by the lead mine to power the mill works.

The scheme has been discussed with NRW and Cadw and is generally looked on more favourably than a previous scheme suggested for the site. Ecological and archaeological issues have been considered in the outline design scheme. The hydro-scheme should not impact on the water flow of Nant Y Gwaith nor from Nant Watcyn.

Water management works and improved access suggested in Item 3A and 3B would be undertaken in anticipation of this scheme and potentially funded by it.

Works would not be undertaken which would be negated by the hydro-electric scheme development.

Aims: Construction of a hydro-electric scheme by a private company with permission given by Cambrian Mines Trust.

Benefits: Efficient and renewable energy source which could benefit the local area. Ground rent income for the Cambrian Mines Trust. The development could fund the stream culverting and footpath into the main site area.

Costs: Will be substantial and borne by the Hydro-electric scheme developers.

Key Issues: The works will require SMC and relevant consents from NRW.

Planning consent would be needed. These will be addressed by the developers.

Any proposed works must be developed to ensure they do not impact upon or negate the improvement work aspirations discussed above and specifically in relation to improvements of the mill area (Items 3A and 3B).

Partners: CMT will provide full support for the works. CMT may also want to consider taking this project forward themselves, with specialist support/or partner, to provide an income for CMT in the future and ensure a sustainable future for the mines site through reinvestment in repairs, remediation and maintenance of above and below ground remains.

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Information supplied by Cambrian Mines Trust – http://www.iriscom.co.uk/CMT/Hyro%20proposal2.pdf (V2) CAMBRIAN MINES TRUST A description of the Cwmystwyth Mine high pressure water system and proposed partial reinstatement for generation of electricity.

History In 1898 the mines were acquired by the Cwmystwyth Mining Company Ltd who were quick to embrace new technology. This included the erection of a new processing mill on the site of the previous mill and replacement of the existing system of waterwheels with a new high pressure water system driving turbines.

A high pressure pipeline (11 inch pipes) coming down from near Nant y Graig gave a head of 190 feet to drive an 120 hp Gilkes Vortex turbine to operate the machinery in the new mill, while a branch from it drove a small 15 hp Pelton turbine situated in the then defunct mine crusher house.

A second high pressure pipeline came down roughly parallel and to the west of Nant Trefach and drove a 5 ft diameter 168 hp Pelton turbine mounted just above the mill with about 780 ft head of water. This operated 2 identical Schram compressors as well as an incline winder used to raise ore trucks from Lefel y Ffordd at road level to the level of the mill hoppers. There was also a clutch system which could engage drive wheels to operate the mill by means of a wire rope loop system.

The waste water from the turbine was then carried down a pipe mounted on the plinths below the turbine mounting that are still in existence to an ‘L’ bend at the lower plinth. The pipeline was then conducted aerially into the mill building to supply the dressing machinery.

Proposal The proposal is the reinstatement of the Nant Trefach pipeline down to the concrete compressor beds and then from there above ground following the route of the original waste pipe that supplied the mill dressing machinery. This should be visually in character with the original pipeline and mounted on the original plinths. As the mill building no longer exists the pipeline should go below ground as near as possible after the lower support plinth. At a later stage a replica Pelton turbine cover can be fabricated and installed over the original placement on the concrete foundations.

Below ground the pipeline can be buried under a new visitor footpath which will form a reinforced western bank for the Nant Trefach stream so as to prevent erosion by floodwater in times of heavy rain. It is proposed that the new generating station be built within the walls of the mine concentrates store, which is the small building nearest the road. Waste water from the generating turbines can then be ducted into a reopened mill spillway culvert under the road. This can also carry the power line through ducting if permitted. From here the cabling would be carried aerially across the river to join the grid by wooden poles but the first not too close to the road /parking area.

The reopened mill culvert will be able to carry floodwater which normally spills over the road and freezes in cold weather.

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