WWW.THESIS.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, documentation, books
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 19 | 20 || 22 | 23 |   ...   | 34 |

«ESTHER WAPSTRA Thesis submitted for MA degree Supervisors: Dr. Laurens G. H. Bakker Prof. Paul J. C. L. van der Velde 30 August 2013 COMMUNAL HARMONY ...»

-- [ Page 21 ] --

India by claiming Pakistan for themselves. They are untrustworthy because they never show themselves fully, they have their swords ready, their religion is more important than their nation and they are not loyal to India, and they are after Dar-alIslām. There is suspicion against Muslims because of their strange customs like cousin marriage and musalmānī and because of the madrasas, where they allegedly teach children to be jihādīs (warriors fighting for Islam). An image compared to which the voice of Muslims, telling that they “will salute the country that feeds us!

Our religion does not say that we should act against our country/motherland! We would like Hindus, that only our players should win.” seems to be weak.167 Stereotypes still abound. Some people told me that young people have a tendency to be even more fanatic and extreme in their thoughts, but based on the young interviewees I have spoken with it seems that young people are more open towards people from another community, possibly because they have not experienced partition and have not experienced the destruction of Babri masjīd consciously. Yet, the girl who studies Journalism tells me she has never visited Muslims in their home.

It would be interesting to know whether this is also true for other youths, as being in close contact with each other and visiting each other seem to be a basic requirement for stereotypes to disappear. It might be that students and young people more often meet outside than at home (e.g., in the cinema, on the ghāt, etc), whereas older people visit each other at home during weddings, births, and deaths. It might also be that contact between Hindu youth and Muslim youth is less shallow, is more relaxed, and in other or more diverse situations, causing them to have fewer negative attitudes despite not visiting each other.

6.1.3 Protecting harmony in Banaras During three interviews, with Mr. Faisal Banarasi, a teacher in a madrasa, Mr. Rafi Anzaari, the manager of an Islamic school, and Mr. Anees Abdul Khan, a leader of the Gyanvapi mosque, specifically I have discussed what efforts are being undertaken to elevate communal tensions. The madrasa teacher told me that there is system of monthly meetings that are held in the madrasa where anyone who has a problem or complaints can attend and have their problem discussed. These could be anything from government related issues or disputes concerning marriages. Besides, all three told me that they hold regular seminars where people meet, listen to Interview with Mr. Abdullah Jha & Mrs. Shabnam Jha, Kachahari, 22 January 2012. It is a widely used argument that Muslims are disloyal to India because they support Pakistan rather than India, which becomes clear in matches between India and Pakistan. The astrologer remarks, shocked: “In Jammu Kashmir I find so many flags there are written Pakistanis flag. I was, saw by my own eyes!” (Interview with Mr. Narendra Iyengar, Dashashvamedh, 11 January 2012) lectures, and discuss. Regularly smaller meetings are arranged and once in a while there is a bigger meeting where many people gather.

Mr. Faisal Banarasi told about one of the previous meetings where many people participated, some of them a bit educated but most of them uneducated, illiterate Muslims. He had invited Sri Jayendra Saraswati Swāmījī, the Shankarāchārya (Hindu spiritual leader) of the Sri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham, a math (branch or sect) from Tamil Nadu, thinking it would be very interesting if he would share his ideas with the mass of people. However, it caused some commotion in advance as “that time the Section 114 was implicated here! They did not give permission! DM [District Magistrate] said that it would be an act against the nation!”.168 All the same, Sri Jayendra Saraswati Swāmīji ignored the message and did come. He told the attendees that he is the Shankarāchārya of Bhārat (India) and not the Shankarāchārya for only Hindus. The head recalls: “That left a tremendous impact!

The illiterate persons of the Muslim community were influenced in a great way by his speech!” The head of the madrasa himself seems very impressed by the message of the Shankarāchārya. He remembers that the Shankarāchārya not only mentioned that he is the Shankarāchārya of India and not of a particular religion, but also that Muslims can make use of the programs that are initiated by him. Muslim women who are unable to manage the marriages of their daughters due to the financial problems for example can ask for financial aid. Eventually the DM came to the place where the meeting was held and “could not dare to say that this meeting should not be organized now.”. Next time, in May 2012, he will invite Muftī Maulānā Mukarram Ahmad, who used to be the Shahī Imām of the Jama Masjid Fatehpuri in Delhi.169 Mr. Anees Abdul Khan agrees. In fact they work together regularly. In these meetings they try to deliver the positive message that people should focus more on social issues and keep their religion for themselves. He indicated that these messages are not only spread in the mosque, but also on other occasions, like the festivals. Besides, Mr. Faisal Banarasi and Mr. Anees Abdul Khan are not the only ones working together; they also acknowledge the efforts of ‘their Hindu brothers’ and attend each other’s public meetings. Especially when something has happened (e.g., a bomb blast), they try to convince people that “no religion allows to do such Interview with Mr. Rafi Anzaari, Reori Talab, 24 January 2012. Section 114 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 states that “Whenever any person, who is absent would be liable to be punished as an abettor, is present when the act or offence for which he would be punishable in consequence of the abetment is committed, he shall be deemed to have committed such act or offence” The Shahī Īmām is the Shaykh ul Islām (superior authority) of India activities that can disturb and harm others and destroy the peace, that can threaten and take lives.”.170 Mr. Rafi Anzaari argues that to control people who are provoked, in sensitive situations it is better that people should come from the same community because if Hindus are provoked they can be controlled by secular Hindus and if the Muslims are provoked then they can be controlled by Muslim activists or secular [Muslim] persons. And, those are the people, they decide, the secular, they will be in touch and there shall be regular dialogue between communities.171 Mr. Anees Abdul Khan agrees that leaders from the same community are better equipped to calm people down, but emphasized the role of religious leaders more. In his opinion, Muslim religious leaders know Qurān better and are more able to interpret and explain the situation in the light of Qurān, whereas Hindu religious leaders know their sacred scriptures better and can interpret and explain the situation to their people in terms that they relate to. It is worth mentioning that although the head of the madrasa mentions controlling the masses by secular people from their own community, the examples that he gave earlier in the interview (the Shankarāchārya of the Sri Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham and the the Shahī Īmām of the Jama Masjid Fatehpuri) were both religious leaders. Apparently, he specifically wants to emphasize that leaders come from the same community and not so much that they should be secular. Indeed, this is affirmed later on in the interview when he argues in favor of religious leaders: “... the religious heads of different religions, they are more responsible to make communal harmony because political and socalled social activists, who are there for social better structure but they want to use society for their own use.”.172 It is also noteworthy that apparently, in this regard at least, Mr. Anees Abdul Khan considers the Qurān to be as important to Muslims as the Hindu scriptures for Hindus.





Both agree that it is very important to involve not only Muslims in these meetings, but also Hindus and people from other religious communities like Sikhs, Jains, and Christians. The retired social worker knows about these meetings and affirms that both Hindus and Muslims participate. The Gyanvapi mosque leader remembers how both communities participated in a seminar conducted shortly after the Sankat Interview with Mr. Anees Abdul Khan, Peelee Kothee, 25 January 2012 Interview with Mr. Rafi Anzaari, Reori Talab, 24 January 2012 Ibid.

Mochan bomb blast in 2006. All of the attendees condemned the incident and decided to stay united now and in the future. These common efforts to maintain peace, harmony, and brotherhood have been very successful so far. According to Mr.

Rafi Anzaari the group efforts to maintain peace, involve all parties, and treat people without communal prejudices have resulted in the disappearance of riots for a long time, even though the city has a history of communal riots (see section 3.3.1).

It is striking that both Hindus and Muslims talk about the good relations, whereas seems to be only Hindus who are discussing their negative sentiments towards Muslims and only authorities from the Muslim community who discuss their efforts to maintain peace in Banaras. Unlike the efforts of the Mr. Anees Abdul Khan, the priest of the Vishwanath temple indicates that he has legal case running to claim the temple, his ancestral property, back. Were he really to have the temple back, remove the minarets and dome to reinstate the temple, it would most likely lead to a dramatic eruption of violence.

One person who is often mentioned for his efforts to maintain peace is Sri Wir Whdra Misra, the head priest of the Sankat Mochan temple in Varanasi. He is especially lauded for his actions right after the bomb blast in his temple in 2006, when he had the temple cleaned immediately and commenced the pūjā and ārtī as usual (see also section 3.3.2). When I spoke with him he commented on the situation “I, just I reacted in a very balanced way”, but his balanced reaction which was broadcasted nationally might have contributed to the voluntary strike the next day in which both Hindus and Muslims participated brotherly, showing dismay and condemning the incident. When I asked him whether he feels that he has a special role in maintaining the peace in Banaras, he denied that and said he does not “make any conscious effort” and that “there is no agenda”. He told me that it was not he who initiated contact with Muslim leaders in the aftermath of the bomb explosion: “... it was the media which started bringing the Muslim leaders: I’m meeting you, I meet Batimjī.

So I meet everybody who comes to us. If they invite me I am not there. So that is what happened. But I’m not making an efforts to bring them.”. It confused me a bit, because in an earlier meeting with him he mentioned that he does visit meetings in which communal violence and peace are discussed. But perhaps it is not that much conscious effort, but exemplary behaviour that inspires people. The priest told me that he has intimate Muslim friends and both Hindus and Muslim community respect him a lot. People appreciate his efforts to assimilate with Hindus and Muslims: “And some occasion I say that I have become a Muslim-Hindu.”.

6.2 Experiencing religion together

In the previous section we saw that some people are very negative about people from the other religion and there are many prejudices. However, many interviewees see the relationship between Hindus and Muslims very brightly, have good relationships with people with another religious affinity, and in fact there are many friendships between Hindus and Muslims. We have seen what these good relations and friendships mean in associating with each other. In this section we will look at ways in which people experience their religion together and the extent to which people are accepting of the others’ religion.

While one interviewee claims that Hinduism and Islam are blended into one syncretistic religious culture (see chapter 5) another asserts that the situation might mislead foreigners into thinking a syncretistic Hindu-Muslim culture exists whereas Mr. Abishek Dutta holds that “That is not a culture but a wound! You cannot consider a wound as culture!”.173 One of the indicators for a syncretistic culture could be whether people visit religious structures belonging to religions other than their own.

6.2.1 Visiting one another’s structure A male student told that he goes to the temple even though he is a Muslim. Ms.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 19 | 20 || 22 | 23 |   ...   | 34 |


Similar works:

«Discovery of Top-k Dense Subgraphs in Dynamic Graph Collections Elena Valari, Maria Kontaki, and Apostolos N. Papadopoulos Data Engineering Lab., Department of Informatics, Aristotle University 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece {evalari,kontaki,papadopo}@csd.auth.gr Abstract. Dense subgraph discovery is a key issue in graph mining, due to its importance in several applications, such as correlation analysis, community discovery in the Web, gene co-expression and protein-protein interactions in...»

«Information Memorandum Application for the Granting of a Clearing License of Eurex Clearing AG Information Memorandum to the Application for the Granting of a Clearing License of Eurex Clearing AG The following institutions are eligible to apply: Institutions domiciled in a country of the European Union or in Switzerland pursuant to chapter I, part 1, number 2.1.2, paragraph 2 (a) (aa) of the Clearing Conditions for Eurex Clearing AG Institutions domiciled in a country outside of the European...»

«Examiner’s report P7Advanced Audit and Assurance September 2015 General Comments The examination consisted of two sections. Section A contained 2 questions totaling 60 marks. Question 1 was worth 35 marks and question 2 was worth 25 marks. Section B contained three questions of 20 marks each, from which candidates had to answer two questions In general, candidates managed their time well in the exam with the majority of submitted scripts being complete or substantially complete. Time...»

«Distribution Agreement In presenting this thesis or dissertation as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree from Emory University, I hereby grant to Emory University and its agents the non-exclusive license to archive, make accessible, and display my thesis or dissertation in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known, including display on the world wide web. I understand that I may select some access restrictions as part of the online submission of...»

«Academia. Revista Latinoamericana de Administración ISSN: 1012-8255 esalgado@uniandes.edu.com Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administración Organismo Internacional Morais, Ana Isabel Why companies choose to lease instead of buy? Insights from academic literature Academia. Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 26, núm. 3, 2013, pp. 432-446 Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administración Bogotá, Organismo Internacional Available in:...»

«Institut für Höhere Studien (IHS), Wien Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna Reihe Soziologie / Sociological Series No. 41 Chancengleichheit und Gender Mainstreaming Ergebnisse der begleitenden Evaluierung des österreichischen NAP Andrea Leitner, Angela Wroblewski Chancengleichheit und Gender Mainstreaming Ergebnisse der begleitenden Evaluierung des österreichischen NAP Andrea Leitner, Angela Wroblewski Reihe Soziologie / Sociological Series No. 41 April 2000 Institut für Höhere Studien...»

«The Journal of Interactive Online Learning Volume 1, Number 2, Fall 2002 www.ncolr.org ISSN: 1541-4914 Online Learning: Examining the Successful Student Profile J. Michael Blocher, Laura Sujo de Montes, Elizabeth M. Willis, and Gary Tucker Northern Arizona University Abstract Can anyone learn anywhere at anytime or are there required pre-requisite skills or strategies to achieve such learning? Certainly, it seems logical to assume that access, availability of hardware, and knowledge of software...»

«The Qualitative Report 2014 Volume 19, How To Article 12, 1-14 http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR19/redlich-amirav12.pdf New Emerging Technologies in Qualitative Research Dorit Redlich-Amirav University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Gina Higginbottom University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada According to Mayan (2009) being a qualitative researcher means to enjoy living and learning with people to collectively make sense of our world. Qualitative research is not only done with people,...»

«Board of Veterans’ Appeals REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN Fiscal Year 2007 DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Chairman, Board of Veterans’ Appeals Washington DC 20420 February 8, 2008 The Honorable James B. Peake, M.D. Secretary of Veterans Affairs Department of Veterans Affairs 810 Vermont Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20420 Dear Mr. Secretary: I am pleased to present the Fiscal Year 2007 Report of the Chairman, Board of Veterans’ Appeals (Board or BVA), for inclusion in your submission to Congress....»

«REDUCING THE RISKS OF DEFAULTING EQUIPMENT BUYERS by H. Lee Schwartzberg, Jr., Esq. © 2005 The Risk The commercial realities of the marketplace frequently require manufacturers to offer payment terms to their customers and dealers, but simply accepting an unsecured promise to pay for valuable equipment creates a substantial risk. You may have experienced the unfortunate situation where one of your customers or dealers fails to pay for expensive equipment, and yet you were unable to retrieve it...»

«The Nature of Love Dietrich von Hildebrand Translated by John F. Crosby with John Henry Crosby Introductory Study by John F. Crosby Preface by Kenneth L. Schmitz ST. AUGUSTINE’S PRESS South Bend, Indiana in association with the Dietrich von Hildebrand Legacy Project www.hildebrandlegacy.org Introductory Study John F. Crosby Relatively late in life, beginning around 1958, Dietrich von Hildebrand (1889– 1977) began working on a book that had been g rowing in him all his life, a...»

«1 Paul’s Advice on Spiritual Gifts: An Exposition of 1 Corinthians 12–14 P.G. Nelson One of the issues that divides evangelical Christians today concerns spiritual gifts. This issue also divided the church at Corinth, and led the Christians there to write to the apostle Paul about it. Here I present a new exposition of his reply in 1 Corinthians 12−14.1 In this I seek to draw out the meaning of each section as accurately as possible, and to trace the logic of his argument from beginning...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.thesis.xlibx.info - Thesis, documentation, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.