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«Chapter Eight: The Mass as the Gospel The Identification of the Lord’s Supper with the Gospel When a Lutheran is asked what the Gospel is, it is ...»

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would prove beneficial to the people of God?35 It cannot be said that there is less danger today than in the era of Reformation in regard to a faithless reception. Indeed, in an age of growing permissiveness, at least the occasional use of such an exhortation would provide some sort of liturgical warning to those who might otherwise be eating and drinking to their judgment.

The mass as Gospel itself is witnessed to better in the first and third orders of Divine Service than in the second. The first and third order provide that the Words of Institution be chanted or said, giving preference to the chanting, and in the first Divine Service printing them out with their proper pointing. While not in all details the tone that Luther prescribed, it is clearly based on it, and thus continues the notion that these words are in themselves a summary of the Gospel. Further, Lutheran Worship Altar Book, gives the

following rubric:

Whether chanted or said these words should be done with particular distinctness, attention, and reverence. This is especially true of the words of our Savior “Take, eat; this is my body, which is given for you. This do in remembrance of me... Drink of it, all of you; this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for you, for the forgiveness of sins. This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.” “This is not the word and ordinance of a prince or emperor, but of the divine Majesty at whose feet every knee should vow and confess that it as he says [and these words should be accepted] with all reverence, fear, and humility.” (The Large Catechism, V, 11).36 The respect and reverence accorded these words is then the result of their being the sure and certain words of Christ, words that express the whole economy of salvation in a few brief lines.

Thus by and large, Lutheran Worship is at one with the 16th century orders in its liturgical confession of the Supper. The one area that is lacking is a liturgical confession of Perhaps the constant confusion in the Missouri Synod in regard to “open” and “closed” communioni would be greatly lessened if the liturgy itself contained a reminder every week of why the Supper of the Lord, which is life and salvation itself, can prove to be a danger to anyone who comes to it without living faith.

Lutheran Worship Altar Book, p. 28.

what constitutes worthy and unworthy reception. This could be remedied by the use of one of the classic exhortations, at least from time to time. The repositioning of the anamnesis in the first order of Divine Service to immediately following the Words of Institution and with that the return of the phrases that immediately connect the Lord’s Supper with the communion of all the faithful would also be desirable. The liturgical storehouse of the Lutheran church is exceedingly rich, and each generation is given the privilege of exploring and exploiting that treasure trove for what may best serve the Gospel in its own day and what it may add the liturgical deposit. As the introduction to Lutheran Worship so aptly expresses it: “We are heirs of an astonishingly rich tradition. Each generation receives from those who went before and, in making that tradition of the Divine Service its own, adds what best may serve in its own day–the living heritage and something new.”37

–  –  –

Baumler, Gary et al, eds. Christian Worship: Manual. Milwaukee, Wisconsin:

Northwestern Publishing House, 1993.

Die Bekenntnisschriften der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche. Eleventh edition. Göttingen:

Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1992.

Bergendoff, Conrad. Olavus Petri and the Ecclesiastical Transformation of Sweden [1521-1552]: A Study in the Swedish Reformation. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1928.

Bergsma, Johannes. Die Reform des Messliturgie durch Johannes Bugenhagen. Kevelaer:

Butzon & Bercker, 1966.

The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies according to the Use of the Church of England together with the Psalter or Psalms of David pointed as they are to be sung or said in Churches and the Form or Manner of Making Ordaining and Consecrating of Bishops Priests and Deacons. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968.

Brecht, Martin. Martin Luther: His Road to Reformation 1483-1521. Translated by James L. Schaaf. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985.

--------------- Martin Luther: Shaping and Defining the Reformation 1521-1532.

Translated by James L. Schaaf. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1990.

--------------- Martin Luther: The Preservation of the Church 1532-1546. Translated by James L. Schaaf. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1993.

Brunner, Peter. Worship in the Name of Jesus. Translated by M. H. Bertram. St. Louis:

Concordia Publishing House, 1968.

Chemnitz, Martin. Examination of the Council of Trent, Part II. Translated by Fred Kramer. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1978.

--------------------- Loci Theologici (in two volumes). Translated by J.A.O. Preus. St.

Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1989.

---------------------. The Lord’s Supper: De Coena Domini. Translated by J.A.O. Preus.

St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1979.





--------------------- Ministry, Word, and Sacraments: An Enchiridion. Translated by Luther Poellet. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1981.

--------------------- The Two Natures In Christ. Translated by J.A.O. Preus. St. Louis:

Concordia Publishing House, 1971.

Christian Worship: A Lutheran Hymnal. Authorized by the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Northwestern Publishing House, 1993.

Danielou, Jean. The Bible and the Liturgy. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Servant Books, 1956.

Dix, Gregory. The Shape of the Liturgy. London: Dacre Press, 1945.

Elert, Werner. Eucharist and Church Fellowship in the First Four Centuries. Translated by Norman Nagel. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1966.

--------------------- The Structure of Lutheranism. Translated by Walter Hansen. St.

Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1962.

Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary. Prepared by the Worship Committee of The Evangelical Lutheran Synod. St. Louis: MorningStar Music Publishers, Inc., 1996.

Fendt, Leonhard. Der luterische Gottesdienst des 16. Jahrhunderts: Sein Wesen und sein Wachsen. Munich: Verlag von Ernst Reinhardt, 1923.

Feuerhahn, Ronald Raymond. Luther’s Mass: Origin, Content, Impact 1521-1529. A Thesis Submitted for the M.Phil. Degree in the University of Cambridge, May, 1980.

Gustav Kawerau, editor. Der Briefwechsel des Justus Jonas. Hildesheim : G. Olms, 1964.

Herl, Joseph. Notes for an Unpublished Dissertation.

Jasper, R.C.D et al. Prayers of the Eucharist: Early and Reformed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Jones, Cheslyn et al., editors. The Study of Liturgy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Kirchen-Gesangbuch für Evangelisch-Lutherische Gemeinden ungeänderter Ausburgischer Confession darin des sel. Dr. Martin Luthers und anderer

geistrichen Lehrer gebräuchlichste Kirchen-Lieder enthalten sind. St. Louis:

Concordia Publishing House, 1897.

Kloha, Jeffrey J. Et al, eds. Scripture and the Church: Selected Essays of Hermann Sasse.

St. Louis: Concordia Seminary, 1995.

Koenker, Ernest B. Worship in Word and Sacrament. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959.

Lehmann, Martin E. Justas Jonas: Loyal Reformer. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1963.

Lienhard, Marc. Luther: Witness to Jesus Christ. Translated by Edwin H. Robertson.

Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1982.

Lietzmann, Hans. Mass and Lord’s Supper: A Study in the History of the Liturgy.

Translated by Dorothea H. G. Reeve. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1979.

Loehe, Wilhelm. Three Books Concerning the Church. Translated by Edward T. Horn.

Reading, Pennsylvannia: Pilger Publishing House, 1908.

Lohse, Bernhard. A Short History of Christian Doctrine: From the First Century to the Present. Translated by F. Ernest Stoeffler. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1966.

Lochner, Friedrich. Der Hauptgottesdienst der evangelische-lutherischen Kirche. St.

Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1895.

Luther, Martin. The Abomination of the Secret Mass, 1525. Luther’s Works, Vol. 36.

Edited by Abdel Ross Wentz, translated by Abdel Ross Wentz. Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1959.

-------------------Admonition Concerning the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Our Lord, 1530. Luther’s Works, Vol. 38. Edited by Martin E. Lehmann, translated by Martin E. Lehmann. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971.

-------------------The Adoration of the Sacrament, 1523. Luther’s Works, Vol. 36. Edited by Abdel Ross Wentz, translated by Abdel Ross Wentz. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959.

-------------------Against Hanswurst, 1541. Luther’s Works, Vol. 41. Edited by Eric W.

Gritsch, translated by Eric W. Gritsch. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1966.

-------------------The Babylonian Captivity of the Church, 1520. Luther’s Works, Vol. 36.

Edited by Abdel Ross Wentz, translated by A.T.W. Steihäuser et al. Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1959.

-------------------The Blessed Sacrament of the Holy and True Body of Christ, and the Brotherhoods, 1519. Luther’s Works, Vol. 35. Edited by E. Theodore Bachmann, translated by Jeremiah J. Schindel, revised by E. Theodore Bachmann.

Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1960.

-------------------Brief Confession Concerning the Holy Sacrament, 1544. Luther’s Works, Vol. 38. Edited by Martin E. Lehmann, translated by Martin E. Lehmann.

Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971.

-------------------Confession and the Lord’s Supper, 1524. Sermons of Martin Luther, Vol.

2. Edited by John Nicholas Lenker, translated by John Nicholas Lenker et al.

Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books, 1983.

-------------------Confession Concerning Christ’s Supper, 1528. Luther’s Works, Vol. 37.

Edited by Robert H. Fischer, translated by Robert H. Fischer. Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1961.

-------------------An Exhortation to Communicants, 1525. Luther’s Works, Vol. 53. Edited

by Ulrich S. Leupold, translated by Paul Zeller Strodach et al. Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1965.

-------------------The German Mass and Order of Service, 1526. Luther’s Works, Vol. 53.

Edited by Ulrich S. Leupold, translated by Augustus Steimle et al. Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1965.

-------------------The Hymns. Luther’s Works, Vol. 53. Edited by Ulrich S. Leupold, translated by George MacDonald et al. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1965.

-------------------The Misuse of the Mass, 1521. Luther’s Works, Vol. 36.. Edited by Abdel Ross Wentz, translated by Frederick C. Ahrens. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959.

-------------------On the Councils and the Church, 1539. Luther’s Works, Vol. 41. Edited by Eric W. Gritsch, translated by Charles M. Jacobs et al. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1966.

-------------------On the Lord’s Supper, 1534. Sermons of Martin Luther: the House Postils, Vol. 1. Edited by Eugene F.A. Klug, translated by Eugene F. A. Klug et al.

Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books, 1996.

-------------------An Order of Mass and Communion for the Church at Wittenberg, 1523.

Luther’s Works, Vol. 53. Edited by Ulrich S. Leupold, translated by Paul Zeller Strodach et al. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1965.

-------------------The Private Mass and the Consecration of Priests, 1533. Luther’s Works, Vol. 38. Edited by Martin E. Lehmann, translated by Martin E. Lehmann.

Philadephia: Fortress Press, 1971.

-------------------The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ–Against the Fanatics,

1526. Luther’s Works, Vol. 36. Edited by Abdel Ross Wentz, translated by Frederick C. Ahrens. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1959.

-------------------Sermon on the Worthy Reception of the Sacrament, 1521. Luther’s Works, Vol. 42. Edited by Martin O. Dietrich, translated by Martin H. Bertram.

Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1969.

-------------------That These Words of Christ, “This Is My Body,” etc. Still Stand Firm Against the Fanatics, 1527. Luther’s Works, Vol. 37. Edited by Robert H.

Fischer, translated by Robert H. Fischer. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1961.

-------------------A Treatise on the New Testament, That Is, the Holy Mass, 1520. Luther’s Works, Vol. 35. Edited by E. Theodore Bachmann, translated by Jeremiah J.

Schindel, revised by E. Theodore Bachmann. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1960.

Lutheran Worship Altar Book. Prepared by the Commission on Worship of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1982.

Maxwell, Lee A. The Altar Guild Manual. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1996.

Muller, Karl F. Et al, editors. Leiturgia: Handbuch des evangelischen Gottesdienstes; mit

einem Geleitwort der Lutherischen Liturgische Konferenz Deutschlands, 2.Band:

Gestalt und Formen des evangelischen Gottesdienstes. Kassel: im Johannes Stauda-Verlag, 1954.

Osiander, Andreas. Gesamtausgabe. Gerhard Muller, editor. Gutersloh: Gutersloh Verlagshaus, Mohn, 1975.

Piepkorn, Arthur Carl. Profiles in Belief: The Religious Bodies of the United States and Canada, Vol. II. San Francisco: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc., 1978.

Precht, Fred, ed. Lutheran Worship: History and Practice. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1993.

Pressel, Theodore. Justas Jonas. Elberfeld: Verlag von R. L. Friderichs, 1862.

Preus, J.A.O. The Second Martin. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1994.

Reed, Luther D. The Lutheran Liturgy: A Study of the Common Liturgy of the Lutheran Church in America. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1947.



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