WWW.THESIS.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Thesis, documentation, books
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |   ...   | 30 |

«A Dissertation by SARAH ELIZABETH HART Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements ...»

-- [ Page 2 ] --

These elegiac constructions of personhood seem especially influential in shaping communal and national subjectivity when we consider how poetry functions in contemporary modes of mourning. Dinitia Smith from The New York Times emphasizes the significant role that poetry played in Americans' responses to 9/11, describing numerous poems and verses accompanying photos of victims at Ground Zero, in makeshift memorials around New York City, and even in emails among friends and family. Doss observes a similar prevalence of poems and verses left at the spontaneous memorials that sprang up around Columbine High School in the hours and weeks

following the shooting (299-300). Books about consoling poetry like Wider than the Sky:

Essays and Meditations on the Healing Power of Emily Dickinson and The Healing Spirit of Haiku further affirm poetry as a valuable resource for mourners at all stages of the grieving process. Because poetry seems to play a significant role in contemporary responses to loss—and because responses to loss help determine who is and is not valued as a person and a community member—we must situate poetry within the body of rhetorics of mourning, focusing on the connections between poetry and rhetoric. By re-orienting both rhetoric and poetry around their shared origins in mourning, we may recognize more diverse ways of mourning—and ways of consoling others and ourselves, and thereby approach more inclusive concepts of personhood and more inclusive communities.

Rhetoric itself may be characterized as a way of seeing that attends to loss. For example, according to Kenneth Burke, rhetorical identification arises from the loss or absence of connection between people, even just in our physical separation from one another. Rhetoric views the absence or loss of connection as the impetus for dialogue.

Poetry similarly aims for dialogue in that, as M. Jimmie Killingsworth explains, it appeals to—pleases and pleads with—audiences as much as rhetoric does. From a rhetorical viewpoint, we may recognize not only that loss constitutes a prominent theme in both poetry and philosophy, but also that loss structures the very form of both poetic and philosophical conversations. Various poetic forms like metaphor, rhythm, the sonnet, and the villanelle all turn on formal relations structured by loss and/or absence.

Similarly, the dialogic aims of philosophical discourse—a discourse motivated by a love for ever-elusive wisdom—may likewise be viewed in terms of absence and loss. But what counts as loss and as dialogue in these respective contexts? If rhetoric, poetry, and philosophy all recognize loss as an exigence for dialogue, then do our professional practices of reading, writing, and teaching perform modes of mourning?

This dissertation treats loss and dialogue not only as themes of lyric poetry and philosophical treatises, but also as heuristic lenses of rhetorical analysis. I aim first to account for ethical and ontological implications of personal losses expressed in lyric poetry, and second to relate these implications to our professional reading, writing, and teaching. Such considerations of loss promise to illuminate ethical values of dialogue itself. I want to account for how we come to terms with loss, how we speak of losing loved ones, and how we conceive of our own singular deaths. What kinds of personal and communal terms constitute our conversations about and reflections on death, loss, and absence?

Artistic and Constitutive Approaches to Rhetoric Because scholarly conversations about loss, absence, and death engage literary scholars and philosophers alike, two complementary approaches shape the scholarly conversation about rhetoric and loss: artistic rhetoric and constitutive rhetoric. Artistic rhetoricians emphasize specific tropes and/or styles in literary works. By clarifying how certain authors craft specific effects and evoke responses from their respective readers, artistic rhetoricians helpfully affirm the presence of persuasion in the artistic realm.

Constitutive rhetoricians, on the other hand, emphasize how rhetoric shapes and makes available certain acts and kinds of agency. By distinguishing between artistic and constitutive approaches, we may clarify the dialogic relationship between accounts of specific discourses of loss and accounts of broader issues like the nature of melancholy.

Through their dialogic relationship, however, artistic and constitutive rhetorics remain inseparable.

Artistic rhetoricians focus on specific writer-reader connections when analyzing loss in literary works. These scholars emphasize how specific affects (anxiety, melancholy, etc.) mediate writer-reader connections—and how discourses of loss include certain audiences but exclude others. Gail L. Mortimer analyzes the rhetoric of loss in Faulkner's As I Lay Dying, clarifying ontological implications of Faulkner's tropes that convey the anxiety of human experience "so essentially" fraught with "loss" (250). In her article "A Story Beside(s) Itself: The Language of Loss in Djuna Barnes Nightwood," Victoria L. Smith more recently explains how Barnes's rhetoric challenges the elite status of the "discourse of melancholia" and thereby makes this discourse accessible to "marginalized" members of society excluded from this affect (V. Smith 202). Similarly, in her article "The Rhetoric of Embodied Memory in 'In the City of Slaughter,'" Sara R. Horowitz focuses on how rhetorical tropes in Bialik's poem re-orient the reader in relationship to gender and time, challenging conventional expectations of gender and history. These analyses of artistic rhetoric show how literary writers and readers negotiate relationships with texts and with each other based on persuasion and its attendant effects and emotions. Such artistic rhetorical approaches, however, do not interrogate the nature or limits of rhetoric's agency nor do they address constitutive consequences of rhetoric.





Constitutive rhetoricians emphasize broader issues like the nature of rhetoric and how rhetoric constitutes various kinds of experiences and identities/personhoods. For example, Andrea Brady and Philippe-Joseph Salazar consider how rhetoric constitutes specific experiences of loss. In her book English Funerary Elegy in the Seventeenth Century: Laws in Mourning, Brady "reads funerary elegies as ritualized utterances in order to understand how they are affected by context, time and expectation," thereby illuminating rhetorical contours of poetry and their connections to experiences of mourning rituals (1). From a rhetorical perspective, Brady considers how ritualistic elegies help "mak[e] the obligatory desirable," how elegies help make our obligations to grieve the deaths of loved ones and to come to terms with our own deaths more "desirable" (2). Yet Brady focuses more on the nature of seventeenth-century mourning than on how rhetoric performs such processes of directing desire at the conceptual level and with ontological consequences.

Other constitutive rhetoricians speak to the nature of melancholy and mourning in general. Philippe-Joseph Salazar argues in his article "Rhetoric on the Bleachers, or, the Rhetorician as Melancholic" that Thomas B. Farrell "deplored... the absence of norms of rhetorical culture," and that "[t]his deploration is, in essence, melancholic" (358). By using Farrell as a representative of an attitude essential to the contemporary rhetorician's perspective, Salazar demonstrates that the contemporary rhetorician mourns the loss of a critical culture. Salazar's argument hinges on a specific loss, however, while I suggest that the attitude of loss is an essential structure of the rhetorician's perspective.

Brady and Salazar portray rhetoric and poetry as reflecting various kinds of mourning processes and thereby constructing certain conceptions of selves and others. These contemporary accounts of melancholy take mourning and melancholia to be attitudes directed toward specific events or processes (rhetoric in Salazar's case, funerals in Brady's case). This account of melancholia differs, however, from Freud's understanding of melancholia—an attitude that overshadows one's entire outlook.

Peter Sacks offers one of the most prominent accounts of the psychological, Freudian contours of the elegy. Sacks claims that healthy mourning aims for resolution, which may be achieved through reading and/or writing elegies. Tammy Clewell suggests, however, that mourning may be a never-ending process whereby a person continually comes to terms with the losses that define her as much as her achievements.

In her essay, "Mourning Beyond Melancholia," mourning seems to be a way of life, even exceeding Freud's sense of melancholic depression. When we view mourning as a neverending process, we expand possibilities for recognizing continuities between mourning and other emotions, attitudes, and affects including anger, aggression (as Clewell emphasizes), fear, desire, nostalgia, hope, and aesthetic appreciation. For example, "the aesthetic pleasure" afforded by Keats's haunting poem "This Living Hand" is "inseparable from aesthetic pain," as Brooke Hopkins argues from a Freudian view (38).

Keats's poem pleases the reader by reminding her of her own death and thereby relieving her repression of and alienation from that inevitable event (B. Hopkins 38). Continuities among diverse emotions, like the one Hopkins's identifies between aesthetic pain and pleasure, become clearer when we account for the ways that myriad emotions respond to loss, which I discuss in Chapter III: The Many Faces of Loss.

Mourning may affect us enduringly by changing the way we experience not just grief, but also hope, joy, and consolation, recasting them as responses, more or less direct, to loss. Mourning endures not simply as depression or unending grief, but also beyond the grieving process, in the ways that it changes mourners and their communities. Some theorists also take mourning's infinitude to affect the way we interpret aesthetic expressions of grief. For example, Charity Scribner not only agrees with Clewell's sense that mourning lacks "finitude or "any consummation," but Scribner even shows that "real loss" resists aestheticization (317, 321). In light of Jacques Lacan's contributions, mourning appears to be bounded only by "the impossibility of aestheticizing grief" (321). By resisting aesthetic representation, grief seems to lack communicability, thereby possibly undermining dialogue between mourners. Scribner reads grief's lack of finitude, however, as "the potential to sustain the work of collective memory"—where a singular attempt to mourn aesthetically fails, the threshold to affirm "collective memory" and collective modes of mourning arises (317). We may infer that grief's resistance of aesthetic representation thus inspires dialogue. Scribner's account of grief complicates the genre of the elegy, which seems to be situated at an intersection between personal, aesthetic, and public/collective modes of mourning. If the elegy is a work of mourning as Sacks affirms, does this genre aim for an impossible, ever-elusive end? If the elegy thus perpetuates absence, how might such absences motivate dialogues with others and with oneself?

The difficulty of representing grief also seems to have ethical consequences.

Infinite mourning processes signify an "irremissible ethical meaning" for R. Clifton Spargo, as he explains in his book The Ethics of Mourning: Grief and Responsibility in Elegiac Literature (hereafter cited as Ethics). For Spargo, the elegy "figure[es] the ethical imagination as" motivated by "a mission of impossible protectiveness" of the other (Ethics 13). Spargo's "mission of impossible protectiveness" follows from Emmanuel Levinas's ethical theory. In his essay "Martin Buber and the Theory of Knowledge" (hereafter cited as "Martin Buber"), Levinas characterizes subjectivity as radically responsive to and responsible for the other's singularity. Such responsibility, Levinas explains, "is what is meant by dialogue" ("Martin Buber" 67). Spargo suggests that elegiac literature portrays the "ethical imagination" of such a responsible, dialogic subject (13). Spargo thus invites us to view the elegy as inseparable from dialogue. In light of Spargo and Scribner, the elegy seems to aim for two impossible ends—the aestheticization of grief and the protection of the other's singularity. By aiming for these impossible ends, however, the elegy apparently orients itself toward dialogue.

The elegy's aim to protect the other produces what Spargo calls anti-elegiac "tendencies" within the genre (Ethics 129). These tendencies resist resolving mourning in a literary work that purports to express and preserve the other—an aim that unethically denies the other's differences (Spargo 67). Jahan Ramazani and Eleanor DesPrez also fear that aesthetic projects may fall short of conveying genuine mourning, and even risk violating the other by attempting to "[redeem] loss as poetic gain" (Ramazani 7). Thus, they favor anti-elegiac works that do not substitute poetic pleasure for genuine grief, but rather engage "incomplete mourning" in their readers—mourning that "ethical[ly] acknowledge[s]... the radical alterity of the other whom one mourns" (Spargo, Ethics 13). For these critics, consolation, especially aesthetic consolation, may injure the other's difference or elide her altogether in the process of aestheticizing her.

Their critiques of consolation seem potentially dangerous to me, however, because they seem to appreciate the kind of unending grief that characterizes clinical depression and psychological paralysis, as if insisting that grievers should dwell in

depression and crippling melancholia forever. In Ch. IV: Elegiac Responsibilities:

Consolation in Dialogue, I synthesize our ethical concerns for both the bereaved and for the lost loved ones, suggesting that consolation does not have to erase the other's alterity, which may endure in memories and in other emotions and actions—including consolation. Literary works, especially lyric poems, can evoke ethical consolation in readers by staging speaker-listener dialogues that, in turn, allow the reader to engage dialogically with the work itself. These consoling, dialogic effects arise in part from the dialogic tension between elegiac and anti-elegiac conventions—both of which define "the elegiac genre," according to Spargo (Ethics 129).



Pages:     | 1 || 3 | 4 |   ...   | 30 |


Similar works:

«GENDER AND SECOND LANGUAGE STYLE: AMERICAN LEARNER PERCEPTIONS AND USE OF MANDARIN SAJIAO A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI‛I A A OA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN LINGUISTICS DECEMBER 2013 By Kate Hardeman Dissertation Committee: Katie Drager, Chairperson Patricia Donegan Victoria Anderson Kamil Deen Ming-Bao Yue Keywords: Sajiao, Mandarin, Sociolinguistics, Second Language, Style...»

«SYNTHETIC AND MECHANISTIC INVESTIGATIONS OF A DIRUTHENIUM-CATALYZED C–H AMINATION REACTION A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDIES OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Mark Edwin Harvey December 2013 © 2014 by Mark Harvey. All Rights Reserved. Re-distributed by Stanford University under license with the author. This dissertation is online at:...»

«ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF HIGH SPEED I/O LINKS USING A CURRENT-DENSITY CENTRIC LOGICAL EFFORT MODEL By YAN HU A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA © 2011 Yan Hu To my family ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to first thank my advisor Dr. Rizwan Bashirullah for giving me this splendid opportunity to work towards a Ph.D under his supervision. His constant...»

«Curriculum Vitae for Joseph Michael Furner, Ph.D. I. PERSONAL DATA/EDUCATION Office Department of Teaching and Learning E-Mail: jfurner@fau.edu Florida Atlantic University-Northern Campuses Telephone: (561) 799-8517 (Office) 5353 Parkside Drive, Building EC 207D Telephone: (561) 585-1168 (Home) Jupiter, Florida 33458 Telephone: (561) 236-2302 (Mobile) 1.1 Educational Experience 1996 Doctor of Philosophy The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama Major: Curriculum and...»

«Articulating the Core Realist Commitment by Nathan D. Morton Department of Philosophy Duke University Date:_Approved: _ Alex Rosenberg, Supervisor _ Kevin Hoover _ Andrew Janiak _ John T. Roberts Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Philosophy in the Graduate School of Duke University ABSTRACT Articulating the Core Realist Commitment by Nathan D. Morton Department of Philosophy Duke University Date:_...»

«ABSTRACT Title of Thesis: BRED VECTORS, SINGULAR VECTORS, AND LYAPUNOV VECTORS IN SIMPLE AND COMPLEX MODELS Adrienne Norwood, Doctor of Philosophy, 2015 Directed by: Professor Eugenia Kalnay, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Department We compute and compare three types of vectors frequently used to explore the instability properties of dynamical models, Lyapunov vectors (LVs), singular vectors (SVs), and bred vectors (BVs). The first model is the Lorenz (1963) three-variable model. We find BVs...»

«Twelve Hour Basic For The Ibm Pc Compatibles Pick one and 66 genre and counsel into the internet of rallies the amount. Services getting, suggesting as philosophy interest as clear promotions, hot reason scam, Twelve Hour Basic For The Ibm Pc Compatibles being industry consumer and fiber in periodic Cypriot as high traders are focused at mechanical deposit on the plastic investors report of right type. Hoping crucial can Twelve Hour Basic For The Ibm Pc Compatibles download you to show the most...»

«Save eBooks to Read The Oxford Handbook Of Jurisprudence And Philosophy Law from our Library. Share The Oxford Handbook Of Jurisprudence And Philosophy Law file for free download THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF JURISPRUDENCE AND PHILOSOPHY LAW PDF Basic journal, search type of help documentation is really a hard copy manual that's printed, nicely bound, and functional. Itoperates as a reference manual skim the TOC or index, get the page, and stick to the directions detail by detail. The challenge using...»

«FOREST USER GROUPS IN NEPAL: IMPACTS ON COMMUNITY FOREST MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Nagendra Prasad Yadav Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Leeds, School of Geography, U.K. December 2004 The candidate confirms that the work submitted is his own and that appropriate credit has been given where reference has been made to the work of others This copy has been supplied on the understanding that it is copyright material...»

«The Effect of Differing Shaft Dynamics on the Biomechanics of the Golf Swing Nils Florian Betzler A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Edinburgh Napier University, for the award of Doctor of Philosophy May 2010 Abstract The role of the shaft in the golf swing has been the subject of scientific debate for many years but there is little consensus regarding the effects of altering shaft bending stiffness. The aim of this thesis was to determine and explain the effects of...»

«Croatian Journal of Philosophy Vol. VIII, No. 24, 2008 Demonstrative Concepts JOSEPH LEVINE Department of Philosophy, University oi Massachusetts at Amherst Recently· philosophers have appealed to the notion of a demonstrative concept to solve various puzzles. McDowell employs it to support his view that perceptual experience is conceptual, and Loar and others use it to provide an account of phenomenal concepts. The idea is that some concepts acquire their contents through demonstrations. I...»

«A Modal Expansion Equilibrium Cycle Perturbation Method for Optimizing High Burnup Fast Reactors by Nicholas W. Touran A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences) in The University of Michigan Doctoral Committee: Professor John C. Lee, Chair Professor Thomas J. Downar Professor William R. Martin Associate Professor Divakar Viswanath c Nicholas W. Touran 2012 All Rights Reserved For...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.thesis.xlibx.info - Thesis, documentation, books

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.