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Others, such as John Searle (1995), have higher demands, including controversial “we-intentions,” assignment of function, and the generation of constitutive rules.

90 Sally Haslanger These elements are more plausibly required in creating institutional facts or conventional facts; his analysis is too demanding to capture much of ordinary informal social life. E.g., we can have coordinated intentions without them being “we-intentions;” things can have a social function even if they aren’t assigned it;

and social kind membership isn’t always governed by rules.

9. As Howard (1994) notes, the concept of a sociocognitive schema, leaves many questions unanswered, e.g., how and when are such schemas formed both in the individual and in the culture? What explains their formation and disruption? How are they transposed? (etc.)

10. See: http://www.blueofthesky.com/publicart/works/joanofarc.htm

11. There are complexities I won’t address in how to interpret Ginger’s utterance of Fred’s original sentence, e.g., is she denying Fred’s token utterance or the proposition he is expressing? Note, however, that even if we allow the “hidden indexical” to continue to track Fred, Ginger succeeds in disagreeing, but her claim is false, not true: It is not the case that this oatmeal is-yummy-to-Fred.

12. More needs to be said about the individual who offers a critique that is at odds with the operative social structure. This, after all, is the feminist critic whose intervention is the real subject of this essay. Although the proposal I’ve developed characterizes the individual’s social milieu as the one operative in the context for that individual—even if it is not endorsed or internalized—the possibility of being at odds with this operative structure is important for thinking about the location of social critique.

13. Drawing on Longino’s analysis of scientific objectivity, one might, e.g., privilege milieus that meet certain standards for the diversity of and equal consideration of epistemic agents. (Longino 1990)

14. This sort of idea can also be found in MacFarlane 2006.


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